Viewing carrielamont's Garden Diary: Article thoughts
Thursday, October 10, 2013
Future of foodhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNezTsrCY0Q
Hunter-gatherer vs. farmers
worst mistake humanity
how plants tell time
food fakelore Andrew F. Smith
Thursday, October 10, 2013
Future of foodhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNezTsrCY0Q
Wednesday, October 9, 2013
color clichescheerful yellow
science of cooking http://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/candy/sugar.html
Monday, October 7, 2013
mud season YANKEEhttp://www.yankeemagazine.com/article/features/mud-season-ne...
Tuesday, September 3, 2013
stargazer lily storyhttp://www.extension.umn.edu/yardandgarden/YGLNews/YGLN-June...
Monday, September 2, 2013
Plants tied to times of yearwhen can you buy flowering plants for the least? When they're NOT flowering. Miniroses, T + C cactus, tete-a-tete daffodils, other spring stuff, Easter Lilies, etc.
Tuesday, August 6, 2013Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) had questions like these himself. He chose to study pea plants which just so happen to have one of the simplest sets of dna among flowering plants. Of course, DNA had not been discvered yet, and heredity was only vaguely understood. Before his experiments, people (mostly farmers) selected the best plants (or animals) to breed, in order to improve certain characteristics like production of crops or flowers or milk or wool. But it was thought that offspring looked a little bit like each parent, and that characteristics just got mixed together during sexual reproduction. But that's like saying if a blue-eyed parson and a brown-eyed person had a child, it would have eyes that were half brown and half blue. We know that isn't true. People have either blue eyes OR brown eyes, not a combination. It turns out the same is true for pea plants and some of their traits, whether they have smooth seeds or wrinkled seeds, pink flowers or white flowers.
Please remember, when Mendel did his famous experiments with pea plants, microscopes had just been invented..
(The reason I keep harping on SEXUAL reproduction is to distinguish it from assexual reproduction, where the daughter plants are, in fact, clones of the parent plant. They are genetically identical; they have identical DNA. If you root plants from cuttings, whether lilac trees or coleus plants, you're cloning. The offspring (what you grew from the cutting) is genetically identical to the parent plant.)
So Mendel was fiddling around with pea plants and how they inherited their characteristics. It turns out that pea plants have very simple DNA, but nobody had even heard of DNA in 18--. He picked peas because in his greenhouse, he could grow several generations in a year, because he could easily pollenate them by hand easily and because there were some clear-cut different types of pea plants. Pea plants had either green seeds (what we might call the peas) or they had yellow seeds. They never had greenish-yellow seeds or black seeds or striped seeds. They were always either green or yellow.
Before he even began his experiments, Mendel showed that inheritance wasn't additive; it just wasn't true that offspring wer
Just as you don't look identical to one or the other of your parents, but instead look a little like one and a little like the other, plants don't inherit all of their characteristics from one parent plant.
I stared out the window during most of 7th grade biology, but I do remember learning about Gregor Mendel. You might remember him too; he's the one who did experiments with pea plants in the late 18th century. e a mixture of their parents, at least with peas. If the people who thought characteristics were added together, there would have been peas that were half green and half yellow, or that were yellowish-greenish. So his first principle was that inherited characteristics are inherited in whole. There are no greenish-yellowish peas. Now we've come a long way in the last century. People have been cloning plants forever (from cuttings), but now we can clone ANIMALS. We have recombitant DNA and robots and cyborgs, none of which interest me in the least. My point is, he already started with his frist principle. Sometimes is is referrred to as Mendel's First Law of Genetics, but the word genetics didn't even exist.
Then Mendel kept track of genereation after generation after generation of pea plants, recording the characteristics of the parent plants and the characterictics of the offsping plants. Wrinkled or smooth peas? Green or yellow peas? Short plants or tall ones? He wrote it all down. After a while, he counted what he found. Then he figured out the second remarkable fact. Some characteristics were dominant over others. Brown-eyed parents have brown-eyed children. Smooth pea parents always had smooth pea children offspring.
The best part comes last. He counted all the offspring of all the crosses he had made, and discovered that for some recessive chracteristics, the second generation has 25% recessive appearance. This was a really big leap to deduce! It's how two brown-eyed people (my grandparents) could have a blue-eyed child (my uncle).
Now, Mendel was just counting pea plants and what they looked like. He didn't know what they were like. But he deduced that they carried the recessive trait, even though it wasn't visible. It was masked by the dominant trait. And you have to do these types of experiments on a large scale, as he did, and count thousands and thousands and thousands of peas. He found that a mother plant with wrinkled peas and a father plant with amooth peas would have all offspring with wrinkled peas. They looked completely wrinkled. But if he crossed those two offspring, the grand-children of the wrinkled and smmooth plants we were tslking about, they would resukt in3 wrinkled pea plants for webery one smmooth plant. His results looked like this
WW + ss = Ws Ws Ws Ws + Ws -=>) "
Photo by Melody
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Why the plants you grew aren't identical to their parent plants, or the 1-2-3 of plant breeding
Will appear at: http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/4332/
By Carrie Lamont (carrielamont)
August 6, 2013
Love may make the world go around, but sex is what makes it exciting. I'm talking about sexual reproduction, which is the process by which two different sets of genes are combined to produce one new arrangement of genes. Sex. That's what drives the plant world. I'm not talking about peep shows or venereal diseases, variability into the I am talking about the fact that sexual reproductiomn introduces and provides joy as well as bounty for gardeners and farmers everywhere. Why sex? Sexual reproduction is the process by which tne random mutations and variation are introduced into plant reproduction. two different sets of genetic material get mixed up and combined.
Gardening picture"There's a black sheep in every family" is a familiar saying which means that sometimes random genetic changes occur with sexual reproduction. (Asexual reproduction is those cuttings you root in a glass of water, but SEXUAL reproduction happens when male parts and female parts combine to make a seed.) Sexual reproduction is very exciting for plants (and hybridizers) because they really never know what will grow. Maybe a double-flowered plant, maybe one that doesn't waste time setting seeds at all. "I was so careful to save ONLY those sweet peas that bloomed pink and purple. Why did my seeds make plants that are blooming white, only white?" Or "I carefully harvested the seeds from my favorite coleus so I could grow it again next year. But the plants are 6 feet tall a;and they don't look or behave anything like the plants I had last year!" These questions really are both asking the same thing: why don't my plants from collected seeds look like the plants I collected the seeds from??? Shedding a little light on some nuggets of information you may not really know or care to understand may clear things u
The first thing it is important to realize is that seeds you collect are the result of sexual reproduction. I'm not trying to get cute. I'm referring to the fact that naturally pollinated seeds like the ones you might collect from your own garden have a male part and a female part, even though they might appear on the same plant. It's having the parent's genetic material separate (into male and female) and then recombine (fertilization, aka pollination) that makes the whole business so miraculous.
When the DNA separates and recombines (in sexual reproduction) tiny errors can occur. Now big, bad errors cause susceptibility to Downy Mildew or no tomatoes on the plant, or even the death of the plant, but little, tiny errors can cause flowers of a new, interesting color, or foliage with a golden tint. That's where we get exciting new plants.
Back to the seeds you collected. You made sure of the color of the flower on the plants you were selecting from, that's the plant with the female parts, but you have no idea about what type of plant pollinated those plants, whether the male parts was the kind you were looking for.
It helps to understand hybrids too. According to park seed.com, "Hybrid seed are the product of cross-pollination between 2 different parent plants, resulting in a new plant/seed that is different from the parents. Unlike Heirloom seed, hybrid seed need to be re-purchased new every year (and not saved). They usually will not grow true to type if you save them, but will revert to one of the parents they were crossed with and most likely look/taste different in some way."
Hybrid seeds are usually the first generation (often called "F1 generation"), where seed-growers can predict if they add genes X for pink flowers, to genes Y for upright habit, they know (from experience) that they'll get seeds XY, which are upright and pink. Now that doesn't tell you ANYTHING about the offspring of X and Y, and many hybrids are in fact sterile. A mule, the hybid of a horse and a donkey, even means sterile. The term "hybrid vigor" refers to the fact that the offspring of two different gene pools is often stronger and more beautiful than either parent, and while the mule is not more beautiful than either the horse or the donkey, it may be stronger and does not waste its time on romance.
If you do save seed from hybrid plants, and they do produce plants, they are not likely to look like either parent plant, noticeably not like the parent you collected the seeds from. We buy hybrid seeds because they reliably produce plants that look like or behave the way we want them to, and purchased hybrid seeds are, of course, more expensive than seeds you gather yourself.
In the case where you only took seeds from pink flowers and don't understand why the chidren are not pink-flowered themselves, you need to understand that most commercially available seed is F1 hybrid seed. As Angela explains in this excellent article on corn detassle-ing, when hybridizers wish a pink-flowering mother to mate with a disease-resistant father, they remove all the tassles from the mother plants and then plant the father plant nearby. . .
People who collected food from naturally occuring plants--hunter-gatherer societies--have always known that some berry patches were swweeter than others, or some herbs help heal wounds or ease pain. You don't need to understand the Mendelian Laws of Genetics to know that some traits are more likely to occur than others. You'v seen in your children and your pets that some traits are rarer and others are more common. Blonds are special because they're rarer (without a bottle). Blue eyes are less common than brown eyes. We know these traits are inherited in ourselves.
But we forget that plants are complicated too. A pink- and purple-flowering plant should have pink- and purple-flowering babies, right? Of course, but.... no. The ornamental plant we grow from year to year in our gardens is just as likely to be a hybrid, especially if we purchased the seed from a store.
You know that heirloom tomatoes or carrots aren't always the ordinary red or orange a Disney vegetable might have. Organisms have been evolving for millions of years, and usually in the wild it takes many many generations for a new type to evolve. When humans come into the picture, everything changes, however. The natural, ordinary pressures to compete for a limited number of resources are altered.The "mortage-lifter" cultivar of tomato is an example of human bred
Plants that don't look like their parent plants are selected by plant breeders. Thousands of years ago, plants were all naturally pollinated by birds, insects, animals and wind. bees. People (from the Aztecs and Egyptians) to Monsanto and Congress choose which plants to artificially select (as opposed to natural selection) for certain characteristics. Maybe you want a rose with more petals. For instance, roses with a lot of petals are harder for insects to fertilize than roses with only a few petals because the sexual organs are covered by all those petals.
It's usually pretty easy to tell in humans which are the males and which the females. Except in very rare cases, Dolly the sheep and Michael Keaton's character in Multiplicity, people reproduction is affected by natural selection. Of the hundreds of traits which we possess and which could be reproduced, only randomly selected ones will appear in the offspring. But
The expression "the black sheep in the family" comes from the fact that even in a line of sheep that has been producing white sheep for generations, every once in a while, you'll see a black sheep. It's unusual, it's rare, it sticks out...but it happens.
"Cross-pollination takes place when pollen is exchanged between different flowers on the same or different plants. If not prevented, unwanted characteristics and traits may result in the offspring.
Hybrids are varieties resulting from pollination between genetically distinct parents. The "F" in F1 hybrid stands for filial, another name for offspring. F1 means the first generation offspring after pollination. Depending on their genetic complexity, F1 Hybrids can be sterile or produce a majority of offspring unlike themselves.
Open-pollinated varieties are stable varieties resulting from the pollination between the same or genetically similar parents. Not hybrid."last
The seemingly complex task of untangling who pollinates whom has simply to do with which two sex cells combine to form the seed. The appearance of the mother plant, the one who makes the seeds, is all you know when you're collecting open-pollinated seeds from plants in your garden. You have no way of controlling which plant pollinated your pink flowers.
Don't get confused! Sexual reproduction is a wonderful thing. It's only because of sexual reproduction (where the genetic information from two different parents is mixed and combined) that we get new and fun exciting plants. Random mutations caused most of the variety in plants for most of history. Apparently the House of Oranffge in Holland is whom we have to thank that carrots are orange! Plant breeders the .
Definitions from http://www.seedsave.org/issi/904/basic.html
Pea plants happen to be one of those which are self-fertile; they can pollinate themselves and polllination often takes place before the flower even opens! If sexual reproduction, in which some of the egg contents are exchanged with some of the sperm contents, were not possible, every plant and animal would be a clone of its ancestors! There would be one kind of sheep and one breed of dog and one kind of tomato and one color of rose. (Actually, there would be one kind of plant and one knd of mammal, or one kind of organism period.) Happily, there is sexual reproduction, in which the genetic material of the parents are mixed up and transferred. so there is lots of variety among living things. ,
Saturday, January 26, 2013
Tuesday, January 22, 2013
chewing gumhttp://usmintindustry.org/Portals/1/The History of Chewing G...
Monday, January 21, 2013http://www.aboutdarwin.com/timeline/time_04.html#0020
Friday, January 18, 2013
smells of plantsyou can tell how a plant is doing by how it smells?
Friday, January 18, 2013
Darwin Day submit by February 5 pleaseEvolution is the most important scientific discovery of the past two centuries, revealing to us our past, and the great history of the development of life on Earth from simple origins.
clocks vs. enjoying time ancient monks invention of the sundial
also something else -- Plants telling time
Thursday, January 17, 2013
UNIVERSAL design articlehttp://www.caring.com/articles/size-and-space-forever-home
WHERE DID CORN COME FROM?
SLOW BIRTH OF AGRICULTURE
be aware of garden poisons
How do plants tell time?
It's not that hard to come up with a new plant, in fact it's more difficult to keep the new ones from changing by themselves. That's why new hybrids are often vegetatively propagated, or started with a piece of the old plant. Every time seeds are created, there is the chance of the plant reverting to one of its less attractive parents.
FOOD ART!i dea
Cambridge World History of Food
if you're wondering where sugar comes from and s it really bad..............
if you're wondering about oxygen and roots
about food color made from plants, ie butter from carrots, annatto, indigo, etc.
Wednesday, January 16, 2013
very big file
They cut down the magnolia tree
"Why does ginseng native to China and to the Appalachians? The Asian-American Disjunct
Wednesday, January 16, 2013
very big file
They cut down the magnolia tree
"Why does ginseng native to China and to the Appalachians? The Asian-American Disjunct
Wednesday, January 16, 2013
link about herb nameshttp://apinchof.com/herbindex1071.html
Thursday, January 10, 2013
molasses sorghum etc. Liquidambar's threadcorn weed to wonder
I think it would be a great article.
I do put it in my cooking.
If it calls for brown sugar - I forget the sugar - I don't have it my house and just put the molasses in it. Lots of people have no idea what brown sugar is - you would teach them something.
What is the difference in:
Maybe you can tell me why Wal Mart molasses is thin like maple syrup and why Save a Lot's molasses is so thick (they say on both of the label no corn syrup added)?
What happened to Save a Lot that they reduced the size of the bottles of it? Is it catching on as a healthier sugar.
Is it a healthier sugar?
What are all the minerals in it-- iron in it and sulfur (?)
Oh, I ran into a whole family that made a good living growing, making and selling molasses.
They went to all the festivals taking the press and mule with them. If things keeps going down hill - I might try to horn it to their business. They also sold lots of locally grown honey.
I planted sorghum once for the kids - and if they ran through them - gosh those leaves are sharp.
Lots of ways to go with it.You have me excited about seeing what you come up with.
MSGs by the way- do occur naturally too - put that on the back burner maybe.
Don't forget ginger/cloves/cinnamon/all spice/nutmeg/ mace/ goes with it so very well.
Friday, December 7, 2012
play clay ornamentshttp://www.argostarch.com/recipe_details.asp?id=1286
Sunday, November 25, 2012
Thursday, November 15, 2012
christmas figgy pudding Yorkshirehttp://www.whychristmas.com/customs/pudding.shtml
BIRD'S CUSTARD - HISTORY
1837 - Albert Bird invents the custard powder
1920s - Three Birds trademark created for marketing campaigns
1947 - Brand acquired by General Foods
1989 - US food giant Kraft buys brand
2004 - UK's Premier Foods buys Bird's Custard from Kraft
Check Premier Foods' share price
The company said that it
Bird's custard invented 1837 Albert Bird made with CORNstarch and no eggs so it won't curdle!
Apple-Raisin Bread Pudding
(1 Reviews) | Rate this Recipe | See Reviews
Bread pudding is truly a comfort food dessert, especially this recipe with apples, raisins and walnuts.
Makes 8 servings.
Prep Time: 15 minutes
Cook Time: 45 minutes
2 cups whole milk
1 cup sugar
3 tablespoons butter, melted
1 1/2 teaspoons McCormick® Allspice, Ground
1 teaspoon McCormick® Pure Vanilla Extract
1/2 teaspoon McCormick® Cinnamon, Ground
4 cups French or Italian bread cubes
1 large apple, peeled and chopped
1/2 cup raisins
1/2 cup chopped walnuts
1. Preheat oven to 350°F. Mix eggs, milk, sugar, butter, allspice, vanilla and cinnamon in large bowl until well blended.
2. Stir in bread cubes, apple, raisins and walnuts. Spread evenly in greased 11x7-inch baking dish.
3. Bake 40 to 45 minutes or until knife inserted in center comes out clean. Serve warm.
Fat: 14 g
Carbohydrates: 53 g
Cholesterol: 126 mg
Sodium: 247 mg
Fiber: 2 g
Protein: 9 g
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Thursday, November 15, 2012
Haggis = scrapple?http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/22/travel/fare-of-the-country...
Wednesday, November 14, 2012
Wednesday, November 14, 2012
Wednesday, November 14, 2012
Sunday, November 11, 2012
random thoughts that haven't been adequately addressed elsewherebetter history of jack-o-lantern
alcohol--VERY important as historical development
veterans day BETTER
ARTICLE about lupines the one which I grew as 'Minim' but which also makes 'Twilight Blues.'
INDIAN PUDDING way before Thanksgiving also maybe Scrapple
Thursday, November 8, 2012
oxygen and co2We all know that plants clean the air, replacing nasty carbon dioxide with healthful, breathable oxygen. Plants, however, can produce their own carbohydrates or food, and produce carbon dioxide themselves to take in and convert to oxygen. It's common to think of this gas exchange as an equation, where animals carbon dioxide output equals the intake of plantsss, and plants' oxygen output equals the intake of animals. (I mean ALL plants and ALL animals, where bacteria, yeasts and other miscellany are divided up by whether they produce or consume oxygen.) But in fact≠
amount of carbon dioxide plants need ≠ amount of carbon dioxide animals use
Saturday, November 3, 2012
gardening metaphors?secret garden
garden of eden
tilling soil as you sow, so shall you reap
Monday, October 29, 2012
History of jackolantern, sesame etchttp://www.history.com/topics/halloween
Thursday, July 26, 2012
recycling -- saves land and creates jobshttp://docs.nrdc.org/globalwarming/files/glo_11111401a.pdf
Friday, November 4, 2011
http://www.answers.com/topic/united-states about cooking and cookbooks and culthttp://www.answers.com/topic/united-states about cooking and cookbooks and culture
Thursday, October 27, 2011
Saturday, April 3, 2010
a closer look
Nasturtiums at the Gardner:
A Century-Old Rite of Spring
April in Boston means the first glimpse of spring—in fact, the word April comes from the Latin aperire, "to open,” most likely a reference to the budding of trees and flowers. Every year, the Gardner Museum celebrates this time of new life and vitality with the beloved Hanging Nasturtiums courtyard display, a tradition begun by Isabella Stewart Gardner herself in the early years of the twentieth century.
Apr10_Nasturtiums_PopeIsabella Gardner was an avid plant lover, and nasturtiums (Tropaeolum majus) were one of her favorite flowers. They were grown at her greenhouses at Green Hill, her husband’s family estate in Brookline, as well as at her summer home in Beverly. She first hung the nasturtiums from the balconies of the courtyard in preparation for a public viewing of the museum the week before Easter, and it soon became an annual tradition. The fact that the timing of the display usually coincides with Gardner’s birthday (April 14) is particularly interesting to note. It is easy to imagine the appeal that the cascades of these feisty, vibrant blossoms held for the dramatic and unconventional Isabella Gardner.
The display was memorialized by the artist Arthur Pope in a painting from 1919 entitled “Nasturtiums at Fenway Court” (image at left), which now hangs on the first floor of the museum in the Macknight Room.
Gardner expressed her desire that only the orange-colored varieties be displayed in the museum, as she felt that color best complemented the pink walls of the courtyard. This interest in the aesthetics and arrangement of flowers and plants within the museum is characteristic of Gardner. Her will stipulated that flowers be placed by certain paintings; reflecting her interest in color, she selected violets for a Giorgione and nasturtiums for a Zurbaran.
Today, the museum’s horticulture staff, under the direction of Chief Horticulturalist Stanley Kozak--who has been tending the Gardner’s greenhouses for four decades--spends months cultivating the nasturtium vines, picking thousands of flowers from the plants to coax them to incredible lengths of 15 to 20 feet. They will be installed in the courtyard on Saturday, April 3, and will remain on view for two to three weeks.Apr10_Nasturtiums_Cafe
In a more recent Gardner tradition, Chef Peter Crowley of The Gardner Cafe offers a special Edible Nasturtiums menu each year to showcase the unique peppery flavor of these edible blossoms. Click here to view this year’s menu. The special dishes will be available as long as the Hanging Nasturtiums are on view.
Fun Facts About Nasturtiums:
~ Nasturtiums are native to South America and were introduced to Europe by the conquistadors in the sixteenth century.
~ The word nasturtium comes from the Latin words nasus (nose) and tortus (twist), most likely a reference to the spicy scent and flavor of the leaves and blossoms.
~ The plant was given its scientific name, Tropaeolum majus--from the Latin word tropaeum or “trophy"--by Linnaeus because of the shield-like shape of its leaves.
~ Monet loved nasturtiums and planted them widely in his gardens at Giverny, including a place of honor in the border of the path to his front door.
~ In 1934, the Burpee Seed Company was about to introduce new colors of the Double Hybrid Nasturtium 'Gleam'--the type of nasturtium that we grow today at the Gardner--when someone stole $25,000 worth of seeds from an experimental field.
~ During World War II, dried ground nasturtium seeds were used as a substitute for black pepper in Europe.
Friday, September 25, 2009
Wednesday, July 8, 2009
Horticulture Today on weeding* weed on a regular basis
* remove the entire weed, including all roots
* weed when the soil is dry. It is easier to lift the roots.
* weed while the weeds are young
* do not disturb the soil because that brings weed seeds to the surface. Adopt a “no-till” system: only dig where you will plant something; otherwise do not move the soil.
* hand weeding is most effective because it causes least disturbance to other plants and you can be sure to get the whole plant
* lay mulch to suppress weed growth. remove weeds first or else they too get the other benefits of mulch: regular soil temperature and less water loss from soil
* grow a thick groundcover that will suppress weeds
* choose plants with spreading foliage that will cast shade over the surrounding soil, discouraging weeds
Monday, June 8, 2009
Article linksFinally, a note about the book that started it all, ''Diet for a Small Planet'' by Frances Moore Lappe (Ballantine Books, 1971). Ms. Lappe made a strong case for ''eating low on the food chain'' - in other words, grains and vegetables - and explained how to combine ingredients for nutritious meals. It remains the definitive work on the modern scientific underpinnings of vegetarianism.
Crape myrtles bloom at different times of the year depending on variety. Here are the varieties (I think I have them all) and their blooming times (the most common trees are at the bottom).
Chickasaw - mid to late July
Firecracker - mid-July
Ozark Spring - late June
Pokomoke - late July
Velma's Royal Delight - July
Victor - late June
Acoma - mid-June
Caddo - mid-July
Hopi - late June
Pecos - July
Prarie Lace - mid-June
Tonto - mid-July
Zuni - late July
Small tree varieties:
Byer's Regal Red - mid-July
Catawba - mid-July
Centennial Spirit - late June
Comanche - mid-July
Conestoga - mid-July
Country Red - mid-July
Lipan - mid-July
Osage - early July
Powhatan - late July
Royal Velvet - late June
Seminole - mid-June
Sioux - late July
Willliam Toovey - mid-July
Yuma - late July
Medium tree varieties:
Apalachee - mid-July
Byer's Hardy Lavender - mid-July
Byer's Wonderful White - late June
Choctaw - mid-July
Dallas Red - early July
Dynamite - early July
Miami - early July
Muskogee - mid-June
Potomac - late June
Red Rocket - mid-July
Sarah's Favorite - mid-June
Townhouse - early July
Tuscarora - early July
Tuskegee - late June
Witchita - early July
Large tree varieties:
Basham's Party Pink - late June
Biloxi - mid-July
Fantasy - late June
Kiowa - late June
Natchez - mid-June
United States (Zone 8a)
July 7, 2006 3:04 PM
If all else fails, find the one you want and take some cuttings. To properly propagate crepe myrtles, follow either of these sets of instructions:
Hardwood or dormant cuttings - Preferred method
Collect hardwood (dormant) cuttings made from the selected plant after frost, but before hard freezes occur (once leaves drop). Three to five cuttings, 6" to 8" long, may be stuck in a one gallon nursery container, preferably larger. The potting mix should be a moistened, organic, potting soil. Be especially sure that the soil is well-drained. One to two inches of the top of the cuttings should remain above the soil line. Make sure the cuttings are right side up.
Through the winter, place the pots in a cold area, but avoid hard freezes. A garage might serve well depending on your climate. Little water or light is needed. Check soil moisture from the drain holes of your container.
In early spring move the containers to a sunny spot in the garden and keep watered. During extremely cold weather, protect them with a cover or move them to a protected area. After six to twelve inches of new growth develops, your crepe myrtles are ready to be planted in the ground. Remember to choose a planting site with full sun or your flower production will be little to none.
Use soft to semihardwood terminal cuttings from healthy plants. Low concentrations of a rooting hormone will speed up rooting but is not required. Place the cuttings under mist and shade. Roots should be produced in 4-6 weeks. Container, potting mix and number of cuttings per container are same as for hardwood cuttings. (If using softwood cuttings with leaves, it is important to keep them from drying. Take a large plastic bottle and cut the bottom out of it, put the cap back on and place it over the container with the cuttings to act as a humidity chamber is an easy way to do this.)
I hope this helps some.
Read more: http://davesgarden.com/community/forums/t/612657/#ixzz2X9yEn...
US National Arboretum
Sunday, March 22, 2009
picture creditsadinamitu, BentleyGardens, Mrs_ed, critterologist, Todd_Boland, bookerc1, kqcrn, sallyg, California_Sue, Kathleen, threegardeners, wallaby1, TBGDN, melvatoo, GallesFarm, pixie62560, Rannveig, Aunt_A, Sharran and Dinu
Monday, February 2, 2009
moving tables w/ HTMLhttp://davesgarden.com/community/forums/p.php?pid=6080917
Tuesday, October 21, 2008
weather and biology
Wednesday, August 27, 2008
saguaro cactusThe Majestic Saguaro Cactus
rate this page
Saguaro Cacti are Found only in the Southwestern Cornor of the Nation
Mention the word cactus and, for most people, the first thing that comes to mind is the mighty saguaro cactus. Thanks largely to western movies, the saguaro has become synonymous with cactus, despite the fact that, not only are there numerous varieties of cactus growing in desert areas around the world, but that the saguaro itself is only found in a very small part of the planet. In fact the range of the saguaro is basically Southern Arizona, a small part of Southeastern California, and the northern parts of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California.
The saguaro is a slow growing plant that can live as long as two to three hundred years. While a mature saguaro can reach 50 feet or more in height, it takes about ten years to grow from seed to an inch high. Young saguaros consist of a single vertical trunk and it takes about three quarters of a century before the characteristic arms begin to grow out from the trunk. Most of the mature saguaros that can be seen today are from seeds that started sprouting in the years before the American Revolution which explains why there are laws against chopping them down and why developers go to great lengths to move them before developing land on which saguaros are growing.
The Saguaro's Fruit is Consumed by Humans and Animals
While mature saguaros produce thousands of seeds each year, very few sprout as the seeds are a primary food source for many birds and other desert animals. The seeds and ripening fruit first attract insects and birds (which are attracted by both the fruit and seeds as well as the insects. As the fruits and seeds fall or are knocked to the ground by the birds they attract small desert animals which feed on them as well as larger animals like coyotes which feed on the smaller animals.
The fruit is also consumed by humans some of whom eat it raw and others in the form of jams and syrups produced from the fruit. The Tohono O'odham (formally known as Papagos - a derogatory name given to them by their enemies prior to the arrival of the Europeans) have a long tradition of harvesting the fruit of the saguaro and using it to make jelly, candies and a ceremonial wine. According to Tohono O'odham tradition, the first saguaro originated when a young woman threw herself into the ground and later emerged as the saguaro cactus which, in times past, provided them with not only the fruit but other parts of the saguaro were used for tools, baskets, building materials and fuel. White flowers appear on the saguaro in April and May and by July the fruits are ripe and ready for harvest which is a festive time for the Tohono O'odham as they gather for the harvest. Part of the celebration includes the making and drinking of the ceremonial wine made by allowing the syrup produced by boiling the fruit to ferment. According to tradition the ceremonial drinking of the wine is what brings on the summer rains that water the desert. Who knows, maybe it does bring the rain as the summer monsoon season generally starts watering the desert right after the Tohono O'odham's ceremonial drinking of the saguaro wine.
Regardless of whether or not the ceremonial drinking of the wine produced from the Saguaro fruit is responsible for bringing on the summer rains, the mighty Saguaro remains both an imposing figure in the desert and a source of food and shelter for many of the creatures that live in the surrounding desert.
Thursday, July 31, 2008
Fall PlantingMost perennials can be planted in the fall or early spring. Fall planting gives the plant more time to become established before the start of active growth in the spring. Fall-planted perennials are usually well-established before hot weather. Fall planting should be finished at least 6 weeks before hard-freezing weather occurs.
Early spring is also considered a good time to plant perennials. Planting early, just after killing frosts have passed, is better than later spring planting.
Many perennials can be grown from seed, but most gardeners prefer to start with established plants. Perennials are available grown in containers, field-grown, or shipped bare-root and dormant.
If plants are somewhat pot-bound at planting time, loosen the roots around the bottom and sides of the root ball and spread them out in the bottom of the planting hole. To encourage side root growth, make the hole twice as wide as deep. Refill the hole, firming the soil in around the plant to avoid air pockets. Be sure the crown of the plant (the point where roots and top join)is even with the soil surface.
Wednesday, July 23, 2008
101 penny-pinching tipseggshell planters
moisture control things from pills for seeds
panty-hose (who wears those?) to tie up tomatoes
plant up your stuff when the time comes
leave it, well watered, in the shade, if you can't plant right away
research your plants before you spend the money - no more pretty faces
Wednesday, July 9, 2008
The Deserted GardenI MIND me in the days departed,
How often underneath the sun
With childish bounds I used to run
To a garden long deserted.
The beds and walks were vanish'd quite;
And wheresoe'er had struck the spade,
The greenest grasses Nature laid,
To sanctify her right.
I call'd the place my wilderness,
For no one enter'd there but I.
The sheep look'd in, the grass to espy,
And pass'd it ne'ertheless.
The trees were interwoven wild,
And spread their boughs enough about
To keep both sheep and shepherd out,
But not a happy child.
Adventurous joy it was for me!
I crept beneath the boughs, and found
A circle smooth of mossy ground
Beneath a poplar-tree.
Old garden rose-trees hedged it in,
Bedropt with roses waxen-white,
Well satisfied with dew and light,
And careless to be seen.
Long years ago, it might befall,
When all the garden flowers were trim,
The grave old gardener prided him
On these the most of all.
Some Lady, stately overmuch,
Here moving with a silken noise,
Has blush'd beside them at the voice
That liken'd her to such.
Or these, to make a diadem,
She often may have pluck'd and twined;
Half-smiling as it came to mind,
That few would look at them.
O, little thought that Lady proud,
A child would watch her fair white rose,
When buried lay her whiter brows,
And silk was changed for shroud!--
Nor thought that gardener (full of scorns
For men unlearn'd and simple phrase)
A child would bring it all its praise,
By creeping through the thorns!
To me upon my low moss seat,
Though never a dream the roses sent
Of science or love's compliment,
I ween they smelt as sweet.
It did not move my grief to see
The trace of human step departed:
Because the garden was deserted,
The blither place for me!
Friends, blame me not! a narrow ken
Hath childhood 'twixt the sun and sward:
We draw the moral afterward--
We feel the gladness then.
And gladdest hours for me did glide
In silence at the rose-tree wall:
A thrush made gladness musical
Upon the other side.
Nor he nor I did e'er incline
To peck or pluck the blossoms white:--
How should I know but that they might
Lead lives as glad as mine?
To make my hermit-home complete,
I brought clear water from the spring
Praised in its own low murmuring,
And cresses glossy wet.
And so, I thought, my likeness grew
(Without the melancholy tale)
To 'gentle hermit of the dale,'
And Angelina too.
For oft I read within my nook
Such minstrel stories; till the breeze
Made sounds poetic in the trees,
And then I shut the book.
If I shut this wherein I write,
I hear no more the wind athwart
Those trees, nor feel that childish heart
Delighting in delight.
My childhood from my life is parted,
My footstep from the moss which drew
Its fairy circle round: anew
The garden is deserted.
Another thrush may there rehearse
The madrigals which sweetest are;
No more for me!--myself afar
Do sing a sadder verse.
Ah me! ah me! when erst I lay
In that child's-nest so greenly wrought,
I laugh'd unto myself and thought,
'The time will pass away.'
And still I laugh'd, and did not fear
But that, whene'er was pass'd away
The childish time, some happier play
My womanhood would cheer.
I knew the time would pass away;
And yet, beside the rose-tree wall,
Dear God, how seldom, if at all,
Did I look up to pray!
The time is past: and now that grows
The cypress high among the trees,
And I behold white sepulchres
As well as the white rose,--
When wiser, meeker thoughts are given,
And I have learnt to lift my face,
Reminded how earth's greenest place
The colour draws from heaven,--
It something saith for earthly pain,
But more for heavenly promise free,
That I who was, would shrink to be
That happy child again.
Monday, May 19, 2008
Tuesday, April 1, 2008
container gardenIt started when I bought one of those magazines. This magazine had a "BEFORE" picture that may as well have been taken behind our house - the dryer vent, the piles of junk, the parched earth, the "nobody loves me" look. And the "AFTER" picture - oh, my! The foundation planting, the carefully thought out hard-scaping, the flowers, the butterflies!
Sunday, March 30, 2008
tapla's threadkeep trying to follow along, but so many of the pots I have are annuals and I don't care if the soil fully drains or is perched high or low . . .
You really should care. The physics involved allows no differentiation between plant types. Saturated soil is as damaging to annuals as it is to perennials. Perhaps the rest of my reply will offer opportunity for better understanding.
*Is* it possible to have a layer of inorganic stuff in the lower 1/2 and just refresh the upper part of the soilless mix in a large pot? In one place you sort of say you can, but in another place, you indicate the PWT would be too high.
I think something of what I said might have been lost in your summation of what I said, so let me explain: Any soil made of small particles will support a perched water table (PWT), which is manifest in a saturated layer of soil, usually at the bottom of the pot, but which can also perch on top of material added to the pot as "an aid to drainage". This PWT will always be consistent in height, no matter the size/shape of the container the soil is in. With this knowledge, we can say that a soil that supports a 3" PWT, used in a 3" deep container will remain 100% saturated at container capacity. Container capacity is the state of the container soil after it has been fully saturated and is just at the point where drainage has stopped. So, a 6" deep container will have 50% saturation and a 12" deep container will have only 1/4 of the soil saturated at container capacity; therefore, it should be easy for us to draw the conclusion that taller containers are easier to grow in, based on soil saturation levels. "Skinny" or fat makes no difference, the PWT height using any given soil will remain consistent from one container to another.
Container shape has no effect on the height of the PWT, but it can/does have an effect on the total volume of water in the PWT. The easiest way to understand this concept is by illustration. A container that tapers toward the bottom will have less soil o/a in the bottom 3" than one with vertical sides; thus, the lesser volume of soil will hold a lesser volume of perched water. Here, we can draw the conclusion that, based on soil saturation levels, containers that taper toward the bottom will be easier to grow in.
Since the PWT height diminishes with increasing particle size, until at around a particle size of just under 1/8" the PWT disappears, there is much to be gained from using a coarse, well-aerated soil. Those that I use and suggest are designed to eliminate or nearly eliminate any perched water and associated concerns.
We know that when we use a "drainage layer" under any soil that will support a PWT, the particles in the "drainage layer" must be less than 2.1x the size of the particles in the layer above, or water will perch. Therefore, if we use the 3" water saturation level we refer to above, and if you use a coarse drainage layer below it, water dispersement will be situated like this: You will have the depth of the "drainage layer" that remains quite full of air and relatively free of water. On top of/above that, you will have 3" of saturated soil, and above the saturated soil, you will have soil with an aeration level unaffected by the perched water.
The soils I suggest using are large enough in particle size that they eliminate or nearly eliminate the perched water. This allows the entire container to be filled with soil w/o worry over perched water. If some does occur, it is so minimal that it is dispersed throughout the soil quickly (by diffusion) as the plant uses water & some evaporates. It takes 6 times longer for a 3" water table to diffuse than a 1/2" water table, and during that time, roots that are deprived of O2 are dying.
My other question is about this passage you wrote:
"If you discover you need to increase drainage, insert a wick into the pot & allow it to extend from the PWT to several inches below the bottom of the pot. This will successfully eliminate the PWT & give your plants much more soil to grow in as well as allow more, much needed air to the roots."
The question is, how do I get a wick to extend several inches below the pot if the pot is sitting in the ground or on a saucer or piece of slate?
If you have the container resting somewhere the water can puddle around the container, the wicking ability is negated. It becomes more effective when the drained water can flow away from the container, over a hard surface like the slate or a concrete patio with a slope. Most effective is if the wick can dangle below the container or if the wick is in contact with soil below the container. When the wick contacts the soil, the earth becomes a giant extension of the wick and will absorb water saturating the wick until the physical forces working inside and outside the container are equalized.
I have more questions, one about the link to the Miraclegro which I cannot find. Here is the link you posted, but they don't appear to list the exact product you mention -- Miracle-Gro Granular soluble 24-8-16 with micronutrients. The liquid you linked to is a Canadian website. I am only frustrated because I cannot find it here locally.
Both MG 12-4-8 liquid and 24-8-16 granular soluble are extremely common. The label will say "All-Purpose Fertilizer" on it. Within the last week, I've seen it at Lowe's, Menard's, and two nurseries near me. You'll have no trouble finding it if you look at the analysis on the labels. For some reason, MG seems to HIDE the analysis - as if it's unimportant! ;o)
You posted about Foliage-Pro 9-3-6. On the same webpage I found they also offer a blooms fertilizer with a totally different ratio than 3-1-2. For somebody wanting a big pot of petunias, are you sure I don't want a high middle number?
Yes, I'm sure. Don't wild flowers bloom beautifully year after year w/o the help of someone sprinkling them with additional P? ;o) Plants can only use so much P, and we know that in natural settings or if all nutrients are provided in containers at adequate levels, that plants use about 6 times more P than N. Since a 3:1:2 ratio has only 3X the N than P, you can see that it is already a high P formula, with twice as much P as the plant needs (in relation to N).
Large greenhouse operations use a method of fertilizing that includes injecting fertilizer into the irrigation water. It's called fertigation. They do tissue analysis on the plants to find what nutrients are present at either deficient or toxic levels, and adjust what they inject to correct the deficiency of all the 13 nutrients plants don't get from air/water.
If all nutrients are available in the soil at 'adequacy' levels, the plant will use approximately 1.5 parts of P and 7 parts of K for every 10 parts of N they use. Usage of N:P:K = 10:1.5:7. I'm going to do some division and reduce this ratio to 1/3 of what it is now, for later reference. If I divide 10:1.5:7 by 3.33, it comes out to be 3:.5:2.
Greenhouse growers have learned that they can control plant growth by adjusting the amount of N available, as long as all the other nutrients are available at at least adequacy levels, and they make it their business to be sure they are. You mentioned that they started their plants on a 20-10-20 blend, which is a 2:1:2 ratio.
Lets go back to the division I did a little up the post. We see that plants want to use nutrients at the rate of 3:.5:2, but the greenhouse is fertilizing them with a low N diet, only 2/3 of the N they want, and twice the P. (2:1:2 vs 3:.5:2 yields 2/3 the N and twice the P). The reason for this is pretty simple. The reduced N slows vegetative growth substantially, but it doesn't affect photosynthesis or the amount of photosynthate produced. The plant can't grow leaves & stems, so what does it do with all the extra food it is producing? It makes flowers/fruit with it.
So here's the deal: A 1:1:1 blend like 20-20-20 or 14-14-14 supplies 6 times more P and almost twice as much K as the plant can use, so is probably not the best o/a choice for containerized plants. The surplus nutrients just unnecessarily raise the level of dissolved solids in, and the electrical conductivity of the soil, which makes it increasingly difficult for the plants to absorb water and the nutrients dissolved in the water. A 2:1:2 ratio fertilizer like the 20-10-20 is still a high P fertilizer in relationship to the amount of N applied (greenhouse fertilizer programs usually furnish all the other nutrients as a % of N) and will keep plants compact while still allowing them to bloom well. If you want the plants to grow lusher foliage, & grow closer to their natural growth pattern, a 3:1:2 blend like MG 24-8-16 granular soluble or 12-4-8 liquid is preferred.
I would also advise you that before you attempt to manipulate growth, you'll need to be sure your plants are getting enough of the secondary macronutrients (Ca & Mg are very important - S is usually never a problem in container culture) and a full complement of the other minor elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, are the others to look for). For best results, you should incorporate an insoluble source of the minors like Micromax into the soil before planting, or add a soluble supplement like STEM to your irrigation water every time you fertilize.
I hope this wasn't too confusing or complicated, but it's very difficult to get the message across w/o using the numbers. I hope you take time to digest what I said, as it will give a better understanding of nutrient supplementation for container culture in general, as well as for your specific application.
Take good care.
Tuesday, March 18, 2008
container gardeningContainer Gardening
There are many reasons to start gardening with containers instead of in the ground. Your dirt may be poor, unsuitable for gardening, or needing much amending. You may have a gorgeous ceramic container that needs the perfect plant to set it off. You may have a favorite plant with particular light or heat requirements that can’t otherwise be met.
Obviously you need a container, soil, and plants.
the container – should be one that you like. See this article for some unusual ideas, and this one for ideas on containers for succulents. Otherwise, you can pretty much go to the garden center and pick out one you like. The most important factor in a container’s suitability is does it have a drainage hole? I believe more plants have been killed by overwatering rather than underwatering. Your container must have a drainage hole!
the soil – although many, many sources will tell you ordinary garden soil (from a bag) is fine, here is a thread that explains otherwise. Again, it all comes down to drainage. Different soils are sold in bags for different plants – orchid potting soil, cactus potting soil, etc. Those are fine, or you can blend your own according to the recipe given in the thread; here’s the link again. What you want is a blend that will allow the water to drain thoroughly every time you water.
Should you use moisture retaining crystals? Some people are strongly in favor of them. Others, like me, are wary of doing more damage to the environment than has already been done. But then, I live in the North East which has been getting enough water for a while and in a town with an unusually high water table. We have too much water, not a shortage. I guess, in the end, it comes down to individual trial and error.
the plants – many, many different types of plants are suitable for planting in containers, at least for a while. We’ve all seen coleus, African violets or potted palms and window boxes filled with impatiens, pansies or pelargonium.
But did you know that you can pot perennials in containers? It’s slightly trickier, but it can certainly be done. Because the pot offers the plants less protection from the elements than being sunk in the ground would, it’s generally recommended that you choose a plant that would be hardy to at least two zones colder, if not more.
And then there are combination plantings. The standard formula is to have one plant that’s the thriller, that is the tallest plant, and the main focal point, a filler, or something with a smaller texture to fill in the middle ground, and a spiller, something to cascade over the edges of the pot.
How about a hosta for your focal point, and creeping jenny as a spiller? Or three different coleus, an upright, red one with large leaves, a medium green one with sprawling leaves, and a trailing one with dark blackish pink leaves? I just invented that combination, but it’s probably possible at http://www.rosydawngardens.com. You can certainly use more than three plants in a combination planter, I just never have. But check out some of these planters by Debbie, which you can find out more about in these threads:
WARNING ABOUT COMBINATIONS: Try to find plants that will be able to coexist harmoniously. For instance, coleus (like shade) and impatiens (which also like shade) are natural partners. So are Magilla perilla and sweet potato vine. So are different members of the cactus family. In fact, the first container plantings I ever did were cactus dishes.
limited life expectancy! And by this I don’t mean that individual plants are going to die, not at all. I mean that a combination planting is a little like a planted flower arrangement. It’s nearly impossible to find companions who will grow at exactly the same rate as each other, or who will not outgrow their situation at some point. Expect this, and go with the flow. Swap out partners with other plants as the situation changes. That’s the beauty of containers; you don’t have to cut down a tree to get more sun, just move your container a few inches over.
And then there are combination plantings. The standard formula is to have one plant that's the thriller, that is the tallest plant, and the main focal point; a filler, or something with a smaller texture to fill in the middle ground; and a spiller, something to cascade over and soften the edges of the pot.
How about a tall hosta for your focal point, ferns filling in the middle, and creeping jenny trailing over the edges? Or three different coleus, an upright, red one with large leaves, a medium green one with sprawling leaves, and a trailing one with dark blackish pink leaves? I just invented that combination, but it's probably possible at [HYPERLINK@www.rosydawngardens.com.] You can certainly use more than three plants in a combination planter, I just never have. But check out some of these planters that Debbie (rcn )mixed up, at the right, which you can find out more about in these threads:
WARNING ABOUT COMBINATIONS: Try to find plants that will be able to coexist harImagemoniously. For instance, coleus (which like shade) and impatiens (which also like shade) are natural partners. So are Magilla perilla and sweet potato vine. So are different members of the cactus family. In fact, the first container plantings I ever did were cactus dishes.
limited life expectancy! And by this I don't mean that individual plants are going to die, not at all. I mean that a combination planting is a little like a planted flower arrangement. It's nearly impossible to find companions who will grow at exactly the same rate as each other, or who will not outgrow their situation at some point. Expect this, and go with the flow. Swap out partners with other plants as the situation changes
Don't be scared of chemistry
What does GMO mean and are we afraid of it?
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