Native American Recipes and Plant Uses

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish Nishnoh(Greetings Everyone),

I will be posting some Native American recipes you may like to try. I will start off with recipes containing Sunflower seeds. Koowomantam(Enjoy)!


Sunflower Seed Cakes/Sunflower Bannock (Algonquin speaking tribes)
3 cups Sunflower seeds, shelled (fresh or dried)
3 cups water
6 tbsp fine Cornmeal
2 tsp maple syrup or honey
1/2 cup Sunflower oil

Bring water to a boil in a heavy saucepan; reduce heat. Add the seeds and simmer, covered, for 1 hour. Strain the seeds and grind.
Make a stiff dough by mixing in the cornmeal and syrup, alternating,1 tablespoon at a time. Shape into firm, flat cakes 3-inches in diameter.
Heat oil in a heavy skillet; brown cakes in the oil on both sides. Drain on brown paper and serve hot. Makes 15 cakes.


Sunflower Coffee (Many Eastern Tribes)
Roast the hulls and seeds; grind. Measure and brew as you would regular coffee.


Sunflower Tobacco (Many Eastern Woodland Tribes)
Dry leaves and use in place of tobacco.


Hickory Nut-Corn Pudding (Eastern Algonquin speaking tribes, Cherokee and Creek)
3/4 cup Hickory nuts, roasted, shelled and chopped
1 cups Corn, cooked
2 tbsp nut butter
1 cup boiling water
2 eggs, beaten
2 tbsp honey
2 tbsp fine Cornmeal
1/4 cup Sweet Goldenrod blossoms

Preheat oven to 350F. Combine 1/2 a cup Hickory nut meats, corn, nut butter, water, eggs, honey, cornmeal and Sweet Goldenrod blossoms thoroughly and pour into a well-greased casserole. Sprinkle the top with 1/4 cup Hickory nut meats and bake for 1 hour. Serve hot. Makes 6 servings.


Aquene(Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo(SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")



This message was edited Apr 28, 2016 3:24 PM

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Here are a few more recipes for Hickory nuts.


Hickory Nut Milk (Algonquin speaking tribes, Cherokee and Creek)
Hickory nuts, roasted and shelled
Water

Grind the nuts, then place meal in a heavy saucepan. Add water and bring to a boil. Strain the out the meal; reserve the oily part of the liquid. It will be rich like fresh cream.


Hickory Nut Butter (Algonquin speaking tribes, Cherokee and Creek)
1 cup Hickory nut meats, roasted and shelled
2 tsp honey or maple syrup(optional)

Grind nut meats into a paste with a stone, grinder, mortar and pestle, blender or food processor. Sweeten if desired with the honey or maple syrup. Keep refrigerated. Good with bread, cakes fruit or vegetables.


Pumpkin-Hickory Cakes(Algonquin speaking tribes)
2 cups fine Cornmeal
1 cup Potato flour
1 cups stewed or steamed Pumpkin meat, beaten smooth
3/4 cup Hickory nuts, roasted, shelled and chopped
1 egg, beaten with 1 teaspoon water
1/2 cup maple syrup or honey

Preheat oven to 350F. Mix together the cornmeal and potato flour in a large bowl. Gradually add the remaining ingredients to the flours, blending thoroughly into a smooth batter. Pour into a well-greased 9" x 5" loaf pan and bake for 1 hours or until a toothpick inserted into the center of the loaf comes out clean. You can also spoon the batter into greased muffin tins and bake until golden on top, about 25 minutes.


Aquene(Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo(SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

This message was edited Jul 30, 2011 7:07 PM

So.App.Mtns., United States(Zone 5b)

Cool... the hickory nut recipes sound interesting although I doubt I could find the nits for sale locally. They DO grow here, just none on our hill, nor nearby.

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Nice idea. Could you please credit the tribe's recipes that you post? I'd like to know what region and people the food is coming from. I'm sure Seminole food is nothing like Navajo. I see you are from MA. Are you Wampanoag?
Aquene

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Quote from MaypopLaurel :
Nice idea. Could you please credit the tribe's recipes that you post? I'd like to know what region and people the food is coming from. I'm sure Seminole food is nothing like Navajo. I see you are from MA. Are you Wampanoag?
Aquene


Kawonkamish MaypopLaurel,

I will go back and try to post the tribe the recipes come from; I am not sure if I have all the tribes listed in my papers. As for the name Wampanoag, it is a broad term, that the English called the northeastern coastal native tribes*. It encompassed many different tribes in New England. I believe am part of the Chappiquiddic Band, which is an off shoot of the Pokanoket Tribe (but more genealogical research needs doing, to be 100% sure).

EDIT: So far, We can trace Mattakeesett, Mashpee, and possibly Chappiquiddic and Narraganset.(still not 100% sure of the last two)

Aquene,
WautuckquesSochepo
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")-(")

* NORTHEAST COASTAL NATIVE TRIBES
Gay Head or Aquinnah (western point of Martha's Vineyard)
Chappiquiddic (Chappaquiddick Island)
Nantucket (Nantucket Island)
Nauset (Cape Cod)
Mashpee (Cape Cod)
Mattakeesett (Barnstable, Yarmouth Port Massachusetts)
Patuxet (eastern Massachusetts, on Plymouth Bay)
Pokanoket (eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island (RI) near present-day Bristol, RI)
Pocasset (present day north Fall River, Massachusetts)
Herring Pond (Plymouth & Cape Cod)
Assonet (Freetown)
and approximately 50 more groups


This message was edited Sep 4, 2011 3:43 PM

This message was edited May 6, 2014 12:53 PM

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish Nishnoh (Greetings Everyone),

These are plants used by Native peoples for tobacco.

Mountain Alder- Alnus viridis ssp. crispa Dried bark is pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
Red Alder- Alnus rubra Dried bark is pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
New England Aster-Aster novae-angliae and spp. Dried roots and blossoms are pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
Bearberry, Kinnikinnick- Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Dried leaves are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Wild Bergamot- Monarda fistulosa Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Clover- Trifolium spp. Dried leaves and blossoms are pulverized and used to flavor herbal mixes and snuff.
Sweet Clover- Melilotus spp. Dried leaves and blossoms are pulverized and used to flavor herbal mixes and snuff.
Corn- Zea mays Cornsilks can be dried and rolled in the dried leaves and smoked as cigarettes..
Sweet Coltsfoot- Petasites palmata and P. frigidus var. palmatus. Dried leaves were smoked as a sore throat remedy.
Dittany- Cunila origanoides Dried leaves are pulverized and used to flavor smoking mixtures.
Dogwood- Cornus sericea Dried bark is pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
Panicled Dogwood- Cornus racemosa and spp. Dried bark is pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
Red Osier Dogwood- Cornus stolonifera and spp. Dried bark is pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
Life Everlasting- Gnaphalium hydrocephaly Dried blossoms and leaves were smoked as a sore throat and headache remedy.
Pearly Everlasting- Anaphalis margaritacea Dried blossoms and leaves were smoked as a sore throat and headache remedy.
Goldenrod- Solidago spp. Dried blossoms and leaves are used to flavor smoking mixtures.
Juniper Berries- Juniperus communis and spp. Dried berries used to flavor smoking mixtures.
Licorice- Glyccyrrhiza glabra Dried blossoms and leaves are used to flavor smoking mixtures.
Field Mint- Mentha spp. Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Wild Mint- Mentha punctata Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Meadowsweet Spiraea alba and spp. Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Mullein- Verbascum thapsus Dried leaves were smoked as an asthma remedy.
Partridgeberry- Mitchella repens Dried leaves are pulverized and used to flavor smoking mixtures.
Pussytoes- Antennaria neglecta Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Sacred Tobacco- Nicotiana rustica, N. tabacum Dried leaves are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Indian Tobacco- Lobelia infalata and spp. Dried blossoms and leaves were smoked (in moderation) as an asthma remedy. Plant can be poisonous if used in quantity
Sassafras- Sassafras albidum and spp. Bark of dried root is pulverized and smoked like tobacco.
Smooth Sumac- Rhus glabra Dried leaves, berries and bark are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Staghorn Sumac- Rhus typhina and spp. Dried leaves, berries and bark are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Sunflower- Helianthus annuus Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked alone or in herbal mixes.
Willow- Salix spp. Dried bark is pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
Yarrow- Achillea millefolium Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes.
Woolly Yarrow- Achillea lanulosa and spp. Dried leaves and flowers are pulverized and smoked in herbal mixes
Wild Lettuce- Lactuca virosa and spp. Dried leaves were smoked for it's hypnotic and sedative qualities.


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Thanks for the education about the tribes. As for the native tobacco...so glad I don't smoke anymore! Peacing out pipeless.
Laurel

Olympia, WA

Ethnobotany by Erna Gunther is a wonderful read for folks interested in tribal uses of native plants.

Lodi, CA(Zone 9b)

Very interesting indeed! Thank you Maccionoadha

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish Nishnoh (Greetings Everyone),

The following are natural flours and flour extenders. All you need do is dehydrate and grind them, except for Cattail and Great Bulrush pollen; they are the finest flour in nature and need no sifting or refining. Also Red Oak Acorns must be soaked, in several water baths, to remove the tannin which is toxic.

The name of the plant, the part of the plant used and the harvest times are as follows: A: All year, Sp: Spring, S: Summer, MS: Midsummer, F: Fall.

White Oak Acorn- Quercus alba: nutmeats (S,F)
Red Oak Acorn- Quercus rubra (must be leached of tannin): nutmeats (S,F)
Arrowhead- Sagittaria latifolia: tubers (S,F)
Beech- Fagus grandifolia: nutmeats (F)
Black Walnut- Juglans nigra: nutmeats (F)
Butternut Juglans cinerea: nutmeats (F)
Cattail- Typha latifolia: roots, pollen (A, MS)
Corn- Zea mays: kernels (S,F)
Daylily- Hemerocallis spp.: tuber (S,F)
Dock- Rumex crispus and sp.: seeds (F)
Great Bulrush- Scirpus validus: roots, pollen, seeds (S,F)
Green Amaranth- Amaranthus retroflexus and spp.: seeds (S,F)
Groundnut- Apios americana: tubers (S,F)
Hazelnut- Corylus americana, C. cornuta: nutmeats (F)
Hickory- Carya spp.: nutmeats (F)
Jerusalem Artichoke Helianthus tuberosus: tubers (F)
Lamb's Quarters- Chenopodium album: seeds (F)
Potato- Solanum tuberosum: tubers (F)
Purslane- Portulaca oleracea: seeds (F)
Shepherd's Purse- Capsella bursapastoris: seeds (F)
Sunflower- Helianthus annuus: seeds (F)
Sweet Potato- Ipomoea batatas: tuber (S,F)
Wild Leek- Allium allegheniense, A. burdickii, A. tricoccum: bulb, greens (Sp)
Wild Rice- Zizania palustris, Z. aquatica, Z. texana : seeds (F)
Yellow Pond Lily- Nuphar lutea: tubers (F)


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

This message was edited Aug 14, 2011 5:14 PM

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish,

These plants are good for salads and for raw nibbles.

Usage Codes:
F = Food
T = Technology
C = Charm
D = Dye
B = Beverage
M = Medicine

Harvest-time Codes:
A = Autumn
As = All season (growing season)
Ay = All year
MS = Mid-Summer
Sp = Spring
S = Summer
W = Winter

Wild Vegetables and Flavorings (Raw)
Barberry- Berberis vulgaris, B. canadensis: leaves, berries (M, B, D, F) Sp
Blackberry- Rubus ssp.: shoots, leaves (M, B, F) Ay
Brooklime- Veronica americana: leaves, stems (M, F) Sp, S
Burdock- Arctium lappa: leaves, leaf stalks (F) Sp, S
Calamus- Acorus Calamus var. americanus: shoots (M, F,) Sp
Catbrier- Smilax rotundifolia: shoots, leaves (B, F) Sp, S
Cattail- Typha latifolia: shoots, stems, pollen (T, B, F) Ay, Sp, MS
Chickweed- Stellaria media: leaves (F) Sp, S, A
Chicory- Cichorium intybus: leaves (B, F) Sp
Chive, Wild- Allium schoenoprasum : leaves, blossoms (M, F,) As
Cleavers- Galium aparine: shoots (T, B, F) Sp
Clover- Trifolium spp: leaves, blossoms (M, B, F) As
Coriander- Eryngium foetidum: leaves, seeds (F) As
Dandelion- Taraxacum officinale: leaves, blossoms (M, B, F) Sp
Daylily- Hemerocallis spp.: tubers, blossoms (F) Sp, S
Dewberry- Rubus alter, Rubus sp.: shoots, leaves (M, B) Sp, S
Dill- Anethum graveolens: leaves, seeds (M, F) As
Great Bulrush- Scirpus validus: shoots, pollen (T, F) Sp, S
Horseradish- Armoracia lapathifoli, A. rusticana: young leaves (M, F) Sp
Indian Cucumber- Medeola virginiana: roots (F) As
Jerusalem Artichoke- Helianthus tuberosus: tubers (F) A
Lamb's Quarters- Chenopodium album: leaves, seeds (F) As
Leek, Wild- Allium allegheniense, A. burdickii, A. tricoccum: bulbs, leaves (F) Sp
Milkweed- Asclepias syriaca: young sprouts (T, M) Sp
Mint, Wild- Mentha punctata: leaves (C, M, B, F) As
Mustard, Wild Black- Brassica nigra: leaves (F) Sp
Nasturtium- Tropaeolum majus, spp.: leaves, buds, blossoms (F) As
Onion, Wild- Allium cernuum, spp.: bulbs, greens (M, D, F) As
Pasture Brake Fern- : fiddlehead (C, F) Early Sp
Pennyroyal- hedeoma pulegioides: leaves (M, B, F) As
Purslane- Portulaca oleracea: leaves, stalks (F) As
Raspberry- Rubus idaeus, spp.: shoots, leaves, berries (M, B, F) As
Rose- Rosa virginiana: blossoms, hips (C, M, B, F) As
Sheep Sorrel- Rumex acetosella: leaves (F) Sp
Shepherd's Purse- Capsella bursapastoris: leaves (F) Sp, S
Thistle- Cirsium vulgare, C. arvense, C. scariosum: leaves (T, F) Sp
Violet- Viola sororia, V. novae-angliae, spp.: leaves, blossoms (M, F) Sp, S
Watercress- Nasturtium officinale : leaves, shoots (F) As
Winter Cress- Barbarea verna: leaves, shoots (F) As
Wood Sorrel- Oxalis stricta, Oxalis acetosella, spp.: leaves, blossoms (F) As



Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")


This message was edited Aug 15, 2011 2:24 PM

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Didn't know you could eat the leaves on horseradish. I'm going to try them next Spring. Thanks.

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish,

These plants must be rinsed in cold water and then steamed in plain or salted water. Dress with 'natural'* vinegars, nut oils or butters.

Harvest-time Codes:
A = Autumn
As = All season (growing season)
Ay = All year
MS = Mid-Summer
ESp: Early Spring
Sp = Spring
S = Summer
W = Winter

Wild Vegetables and Flavorings (Steamed)
Bracken Fern/Eagle Fern/Pasture Brake- Pteridium aquilinum: fiddlehead (ESp)
Brooklime- Veronica americana: leaves, stems (Sp, S)
Catbrier- Smilax rotundifolia: shoots, leaves (Sp, S)
Cattail- Typha latifolia: shoots, stems, pollen (Ay, Sp, MS)
Chickweed- Stellaria media: leaves (Sp, S, A)
Cinnamon Fern- Osmunda cinnamomea: fiddlehead (ESp)
Cleavers- Galium aparine: shoots (Sp)
Coltsfoot- Tussilago farfara: leaves (Sp, S)
Dandelion- Taraxacum officinale: leaves, blossoms (Sp)
Daylily- Hemerocallis spp.: tubers, blossoms (As)
Green Amaranth- Amaranthus retroflexus and spp: leaves, shoots (Sp, S)
Horseradish- Armoracia lapathifoli, A. rusticana: young leaves (Sp)
Horsetail Field Fern- Equisetum arvense: stems (ESp)
Lamb's Quarters- Chenopodium album: leaves, seeds (As)
Milkweed- Asclepias syriaca: young sprouts (Sp)
Mint, Wild- Mentha punctata: leaves (As)
Onion, Wild- Allium cernuum, spp.: bulbs, greens (As)
Ostrich Fern- Matteuccia struthiopteris: fiddlehead (ESp)
Plantain- Plantago major, P. lanceolata: young leaves (Sp)
Purslane- Portulaca oleracea: leaves, stalks (As)
Sensitive Fern- Onoclea sensibilis: fiddlehead, rhizomes (ESp)
Sheep Sorrel- Rumex acetosella: leaves (Sp)
Thistle- Cirsium vulgare, C. arvense, C. scariosum: leaves (Sp, S)
Violet- Viola sororia, V. novae-angliae, spp.: leaves, blossoms (Sp, S)
Watercress- Nasturtium officinale: leaves, shoots (Ay)

* Natural vinegar is made by exposing fermented saps, fruit and vegetable juices to air; for about 3 days. This action allows for the acetic acid bacteria to oxidize the alcohol in the fermented liquid, to produce vinegar. This action depends on temperature and atmospheric conditions.


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

Syracuse, NY(Zone 5a)

Thank you so much for sharing all of this info! Beyond just being interesting, and good to know in case I'm lost in the woods, feeling adventurous, or just really broke and hungry (lol) it's a really good list of native species, literally! :)
I grew up near the onondaga nation as a kid, and have had a strong fascination with the culture. I would love some iroquois recipes.

@maypop lol at peacing out pipepless!!! I'm trying to quit. I smoke native cigarettes made on the oneida nation, as it is the cheapest way to go. NY tax is ridiculous. Not only is it a local economy, and one worth supporting...who am i kidding, I'm hooked and it sucks lol anyway these native herbs listed may be a great quitting tool for me!! Or if NY finds a way to impose it's tax on native cigarettes i won't be able to afford them anymore, at least I'll have this list as backup! :)

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

OH81, you can do it just keep trying! It took a long time and many tries before I made it. When I think about what I am most proud of it is my family and that I quit smoking. It's a huge accomplishment.

I've been lost in the woods plenty of times and that's right here on my own property. Luckily we have trail trees http://www.waymarking.com/cat/details.aspx?f=1&guid=135b8de2-1d55-448f-9a1c-19ba9710493e along with small stone cairns (mounds) on the property that I learned to recognize thanks to those here before me.

Syracuse, NY(Zone 5a)

Those are so cool!!! Since i don't have any in my yard i will stick to the old wisdom of sitting on a stump till someone finds you... Hopefully alive. Lol
my yard isn't that big... But i have NO sense of direction lol

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

I will try to remember to take photos and post the two handy to the house. It's easier in the winter when the leaves are down.

SnowRabbit, having attempted to transplant cattails around my pond, harvesting cattails would be a challenge. They love muck bordering on quicksand.

Syracuse, NY(Zone 5a)

So i was in the woods in my yard this morning, look what points to my house!!!! Lol i doubt it's the real deal, but it made me smile.

Syracuse, NY(Zone 5a)

Ok, whoops, here it is...

Thumbnail by OutlawHeart81
Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

It should look authentic in another 100 years or so.

Syracuse, NY(Zone 5a)

Lol. I thought of putting a big boulder up against it and making it bend a little more, just for fun. :)

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish,

OutlawHeart81, I will check to see if I have any Iroquois recipes.

MaypopLaurel, I know, We have quicksand here too. It sure makes it hard to harvest things... lol.


Here is another list of plants. Some of these plants need to be cooked in two or more water changes, because they contain poisonous substances that are water soluble and are destroyed by heating them. They have an asterisk next to them*. Burdock, chicory and poke can be tenderized by adding a pinch of wood ashes or bicarbonate of soda, to the first cooking water.

Harvest-time Codes:
A = Autumn
As = All season (growing season)
Ay = All year
MS = Mid-Summer
ESp: Early Spring
Sp = Spring
S = Summer
W = Winter


Wild Vegetables (Well Cooked)
Burdock- Arctium lappa: leaves, leaf stalks (Sp, S)
Chicory- Cichorium intybus: leaves (Sp)
Dandelion- Taraxacum officinale: leaves, blossoms (Sp)
Jewelweed- Impatiens biflora, I. capenis, I. pallida: shoots, leaves (ESp)
Mallow- Sphaeralcea ambigua, S. coccinea, S. incana, Sidalcea malviflora: leaves, fruits (Sp, S)
Marsh Marigold- Caltha palustris, C. leptosepala, ssp. leptosepala var. leptosepala : leaves (Sp)
Milkweed- Asclepias syriaca: shoots (Sp)
Mustard, Wild Black- Brassica nigra: leaves (Sp)
Nettle- Urtica dioica and spp.: tops, leaves (Sp, S)
Ostrich Fern- Matteuccia struthiopteris: fiddlehead (ESp)
Pokeweed- Phytolacca americana: shoots, leaves (As)*
Salsify- Tragopogon porrifolius: roots, leaves (As)
Shepherd's Purse- Capsella bursapastoris: leaves (Sp, S)
Winter Cress- Barbarea verna: leaves, shoots (As)


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

For you OutlawHeart81.

Iroquois Soup- U'Nega'gei

Two 3 lb fish(trout, bass, or haddock), cleaned, bones removed, but with skin left on
3 quarts water
4 large fresh mushrooms,, sliced
3 wild onions(Allium cernuum) or 1 large yellow onion, chopped
2 cups dried Lima beans
2 tbsp fine cornmeal
2 tbsp fresh culantro or cilantro, chopped
1 wild garlic plant(Amianthium canadense) or 1 regular garlic clove, chopped
1/2 tsp dried wild basil(Pycnanthemum virginianum) or regular basil(Ocimum basilicum)
Garnish: fresh dillweed, chopped

Place water, fish, mushrooms, onions, beans, cornmeal, culantro, garlic, and basil in a large kettle and simmer, uncovered, for 30 minutes. Remove fish from kettle, remove skin and flake, return fish to kettle. Simmer for another 30 minutes, stirring frequently. Serve hot and garnished with dillweed.


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

Syracuse, NY(Zone 5a)

Mmmmm.... I love the sound of that!!!

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish Nishnoh (Greetings Everyone),

Wilderness Beverages
Acorn- Quercus sp.: Roast acorn shells, then steep in boiling water or sap and use as a coffee substitute. Measure 1 teaspoon per cup of water, put into saucepan and simmer for 15 minutes, strain and serve.

American/Allegheny Barberry- Berbis canadanse: To make a midwinter tea, boil 1 teaspoon of young leaves per cup of water; remove from heat and steep, covered for 15 minutes. A "lemonade" is made by cooking the berry juice in a simple syrup which is made from a one to one ratio of water and honey or maple sap. Dilute the cooked berry juice, mixing together 1/4 cup berry juice and 1 cup water.

Bearberry- Arctostaphylos uva-ursi: Dry leaves and crush. Mix 1 teaspoon per cup of boiling water and steep, covered for 15 minutes. The tea is used to sooth stomach upset.

Beechnut- Fagus grandifolia: Roast the husked nuts in a preheated 300F oven for 30 minutes or, if camping, roast near a campfire to crack the shells and shell the nuts. Dry them further until brittle; grind them fine or pound with rolling pin or mallet, place in a mason jar. To prepare: allow 1 teaspoon per cup and place in saucepan, cover with boiling water; simmer for 15 minutes. Strain and serve.

Dandelion- Taraxacum officinale: Dig up and wash second year or older roots; dry and slowly roast in over a fire or in a slow oven (300-325F) until crisp and brown, which can take up to for several hours. Grind fine and store in a sealed jar (mason) measure and brew like coffee. Wine and tea can be made using the blossoms.

Dewberry- Rubus spp.: The shinny berries can be made into wines or fruit drinks. The leaves can be made into a tea. Muddle 3 to 5 leaves in a mug and cover with boiling water, cover the mug and steep for 5 minutes.

Dill- Anethum graveolans: Muddle 2 to 5 seeds in a mug, pour boiling water into the mug and let steep, covered, for 15 minutes. Use as a digestive aid and appetite stimulant.

Dittany- Cunila origanoides: Make a hot infusion from the leaves to ease cold symptoms. Steep 1 tablespoon of leaves to in boiling water, covered, for 15 minutes.

Elderberry- Sambucus Canadensis: Elderberry has been used in tisanes for immunity boost. Boil-down the berries to make a sweetened syrup (Elder Rob). Dry the flowers and steep them, using 1 teaspoon per cup of boiling water, for 15 minutes. Add 1 teaspoon of Elder Rob per cup.

Goldenrod- Solidago spp.: Collect flowers and leaves, on a dry day, and air-dry. To make a light tea; add 2 teaspoon of flowers and leaves to a small pot of boiling water and steep, covered, for 15 minutes, strain and sweeten with honey or maple syrup.
Grape- Vitis spp.: For tea crush 3 to 5 grapes in a mug and pour boiling water into the mug, cover, steep for 15 minutes.

Ground Ivy- Nepeta hedracea: Dry leaves and blossoms; add 1 teaspoon to 1 cup of boiling water and steep, covered, for 15 minutes.

Icelandic Moss- Cetraria islandica: Dry plant. In a mug, pour 1 cup of boiling water over 1 teaspoon of moss. Cover and steep for 30 minutes. Let cool, strain and sweeten. Serve either warm or cold. You may also mix it with nut milk or fruit juice.

Juniper- Juniperus communis and spp.: You can make a coffee substitute by roasting and grinding the berries; measure and brew like coffee. You can also so make a tea that is high in vitamin C.
Juniper Tea
20 sprigs of juniper
cup blue juniper berries
2 quarts water
2 tablespoons honey

In a large pot, combine all ingredients and bring to a boil, cover, lower temperature and simmer for 10 minutes.

Labrador Tea- Ledum greonlandicum: Dry leaves, muddle 2 to 3 leaves in a mug. Pour in 1 cup of boiling water and steep for 10 minutes. Sweeten to taste with honey or tree syrup.

Life Everlasting- Gnaphalium polycephalum: Place entire dried, blossoming plant in 2 quarts of boiling water, cover and steep for 15 minutes. May be sweetened to taste.

Linden/Basswood- Tilia americana and spp.: Dry cream-colored blossoms and inner bark. Steep in 1 cups boiling water, 1 teaspoon of fresh or dried blossoms and/or inner bark for 10 minutes, strain and sweeten to taste. It is an excellent remedy for colds.

Lovage- Ligustrum canadanse and Scotch Lovage- L. scoticum: Dry leaves and roots. Add cup to 1 quart of boiling water and steep, covered, for 15 minutes. The tea can be sweetened, but is not really necessary. The tea is rich in minerals and is communally used as a digestive aid.

Maple- Acer spp.: Sap is drunk, in the later winter/early spring as a nutritious drink. You can refine it by simmering it for hours, until it becomes an amber color.

Mint Mentha spp. Use fresh or dried. Add I teaspoon to a mug and pour boiling water over it, steep, covered for 15 minutes.

New Jersey Tea- Ceanothus americanus: Use fresh or dried. To make the tea, steep 1 tablespoon fresh or 1 teaspoon dried leaves per cup of boiling water, covered for 15 minutes. Sweeten to taste. Dried root bark can be steeped in water to make a sedative tea and the entire plant can be steeped in boiling water to create an infusion for external skin conditions.

Pennyroyale/Squawmint- Hedeoma pulegioides: Steep, 1 tablespoon of fresh leaves and stems in 1 cup of boiling water, covered, for 15 minutes to make a tea to relieve headaches and cramps. Steep entire plant to make a external wash for rashes and itching.

Persimmon- Diospyros virginiana: Dry leaves. To make the tea, add 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoonful of dried leaves to a mug, cover, and steep for 10 minutes. You can add the ripe fruit to any other fruit, to make drinks or flavorings.

Raspberry- Rubus spp.: See Blackberry.

Rose Hips- Rosa spp.: Use either fresh or dried and grind the hips to extract the vitamin s C and E. Steep 2 teaspoons in 1 quart boiling water in a covered pot for 10 minutes.

Sassafras- Sassafras labium: The leaves, roots and bark were used to make teas. Muddle 2 to 3 fresh young leaves in a mug and cover with boiling water, steep for 10 minutes. Alternatively, pour boiling water over dried roots or bark and steep, covered, for 30 minutes. This was used as a remedy for fevers and also used as a Spring tonic.

Spicebush- Lindera benzoic: Tea was made by covering 3 to 5 leaves with boiling water and letting steep, covered, for 10 minutes or by pouring 2 cups boiling water over 1 tablespoon of dried roots and bark, covering and steeping for 30 minutes.

Strawberry- Fragaria spp. Use leaves and fruit fresh or dried. Place 1 tablespoon of leaves and fruit in a mug, pour in 1 cup boiling water, cover, and steeping 10 minutes. For Strawberry Ade
4 cups water
1 cup of crushed strawberries
Honey to taste

Combine strawberries and water in large pitcher; add honey to your taste.
Chill for 30 minutes. Serve cold.

Sumac- Rhus glabra, R. typhina: The berries are high in vitamin C and malic acid. Gather ripe red berries in late Summer, use fresh or dried for out of season use. Bruise 1 cup of berries and steep in 1 quart hot water for 15 minutes; cool and strain.

Sunflower- Helianthus spp.: Roast hulls and seeds, then grind. Brew as you would coffee.

Sweet Fern- Comptonia peregrina: Use the leaves to make a delicious tea. Cut up a 10-inch piece of branch in 2 quarts of boiling water, cover and steep 20 minute.

Sweet Vernal Grass- Anthoxanthum odoratum: Harvest leaves in spring and dry for later use. Pour boiling water over 1 teaspoon, steep, covered for 10 minutes.

Wild Chamomile- Matricaria chamomilla: Steep fresh or dried blossoms in 1 cup boiling water for 5 minutes. A strong infusion can be used as an external ear rinse, and can be used to relieve earaches and can also be used as a shampoo and hair rinse. To make a strong infusion, place 1 tablespoon in 1 cup water and steep 20 minutes.

Matricaria matricariodes: See Wild Chamomile

Wild Sarsaparilla- Aralia nudicaulis and spp.: Dry roots and grind. Put 1 teaspoon in 1 cup of boiling water, cover and steep for 30 minutes.

Witch Hazel- Hamamelis virginiana: Steep 5 fresh leaves or 2 teaspoons dried, in 2 cups boiling water, covered, for 5 minutes.


Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish Nishnoh,

Here are some recipes using nuts.

Black Walnut-Maple Cookies
1 cup nut butter
2 cups maple sugar
2 large eggs
1 cup Black Walnuts, shelled, roasted and chopped
2 cups cattail flour
2 cups potato flour
1 tsp wood ashes
1 cup hot water
Optional: additional nuts for topping

Preheat oven to 350F. In a large bowl cream together all ingredients. Drop batter by teaspoon onto greased cookie sheets. Sprinkle tops with additional nuts. Bake for 20 minutes.


Beechnut Pie
1 cup cornmeal
1 cup nutmeal
3 eggs, beaten til frothy
1 cup beechnut butter, softened
1 cup light corn syrup
1/2 cup maple sugar
1 cup roasted beechnut meats

Preheat oven to 325F. Prepare pie shell by blending cornmeal and nutmeal; press evenly into greased pie plate.
Cream together eggs and beechnut butter, gradually add corn syrup and maple sugar. Turn into prepared pie shell and bake for 35 minutes. Remove from oven and cover the top evenly with beechnut meats. Return pie to oven and bake an additional 20 minutes.

The recipe can be adapted to any nut. Example: Black Walnut Pie, substitute 1 cup dark corn syrup.


Cranberry-Walnut Cakes*
1 cup cranberries, chopped
3/4 cup Black Walnuts, shelled, roasted and chopped
1 egg, beaten with 1 teaspoon water
1/2 cup honey
2 cups fine cornmeal
1 cup cattail flour

Preheat oven to 350F. Blend cornmeal and cattail flour; gradually add each ingredient, blending thoroughly into a smooth batter. Lighten with warm water if the batter seems too thick. Pour into greased 9x5-inch loaf pan and bake for 1 hour. Or spoon into 12 greased muffin cups and bake 25 minutes or until tops are golden brown.

* Pecans can be substituted for Black Walnuts.


Beechnut Currant Cakes
1 tbsp wood ashes
2 cups boiling water
1 cup dried currants
1 cup beechnut meats, roasted and chopped
3 cups fine cornmeal
1 cup beechnut flour
1 cup maple sugar
2 eggs, beaten
3 tbsp nut butter

Preheat oven to 350F. Stir wood ashes into boiling water and pour over currants. Let stand for 15 minutes to cool. Mix together remaining ingredients, blend in currants and water. Spread into into a greased 9x9x5-inch pan and bake for 45 minutes. Cool slightly and cut into 12 squares.


Meatless Pemmican*
1/2 cup raisins
1/2 cup hog nuts(can substitute peanuts)
1/2 cup hickory nuts
1/2 cup dried apples
1/2 dried pumpkin or squash
1/4 cup acorn
1/4 cup cornmeal
1/3 honey or maple syrup

Set oven at lowest possible setting. Combine the acorn and cornmeal. To make sure the acorn and cornmeal are bone-dry, spread in a thin layer on a cookie sheet and place in a warm oven for 15 to 30 minutes, checking frequently. When dry, combine them with the raisins, hog nuts/peanuts, hickory nuts, apples, pumpkin/squash and either chop or coarsely grind them. Add honey or maple syrup and blend thoroughly. Divide the mixture into 1/4-cup portions, press into cakes, and store in the refrigerator for use later.

* You can make traditional pemmican by combining dried and shredded, bear, bison, or venison, with suet, nuts, dried fruit and/or berries.


Lakota Plum Cakes
1 cup dark raisins
1 cup boiling water
16 oz beach plums, pitted or 16-oz can purple plums, drained and pitted
1 cup toasted hazelnuts, chopped fine
1/2 cup melted butter
4 cups sifted all-purpose flour
3 teaspoons baking soda
1 1/2 tsp coltsfoot ashes (or salt)
1 1/2 tsp allspice
1 tsp. ground cloves
1 cup honey
1/2 cup maple syrup

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Lightly oil 24 or more muffin cups.
Place raisins in small glass bowl, cover with 1 cup boiling water; soak 30 minutes till plump.
Mash plums in a large mixing bowl, add remaining ingredients to plums and mix well. Add soaked raisins and their liquid. Blend together well. Fill each muffin cup 1/2 way full. Bake 30 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted in center comes out clean.
Cool 10 minutes on wire rack, loosen sides, and turn out of muffin pan. Serve warm with honey or raspberry-plum butter.


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
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This message was edited Aug 30, 2011 12:06 PM

Prosperity, SC(Zone 7b)

Really cool info I shared the SUnflower recipe/info at my fb group Sunflowers and Edibles

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

Kawonkamish Nishnoh,

Buffy, Koonepeam (You are welcome).

Here are some of the fruits and berries used by Native Americans.

Edible Fruits and Berries
American Cranberry- Vaccinium macrocarpon: Used to flavor Autumn and Winter foods.

Barberry- Berberis canadensis, B. vulgaris: Eaten fresh or dried. A drink can be made by stewing. As it is high in pectin, it can readily made into jams, jellies, preserves and pies. It can also so be added to apple and peaches to boost their flavor.

Candleberry/Bayberry- Myrica pensylvanica and spp.: The berries were not used in cooking, but the leaves were used as a flavoring for sauces, stews and chowders.

Kinnikinnick/Bearberry- Arctostaphylos uva-ursi: The berries are bland in taste and are best cooked with other fruit in jams, jellies, preserves and pies.

Beach Plum- Prunus maritima: The fruits are sweet and juicy. They can be eaten raw, dried or cooked in jams, jellies, preserves and pies.

Squaw Root/Blue Cohosh- Caulophyllum thalictroides: The seeds, when roasted make an excellent coffee substitute.

Blueberries- Vaccinium augustifolium and spp.; The berries can be eaten raw or dried for future used. The fresh berries can be made into jams, jellies, preserves and pies. The dried berries can be used in stews and in flavoring game.

Bison/Buffalo Berries- Shepherdia canadensis and spp.: The berries are gathered after the first frost and dried; it is then used as a flavoring for Bison meat.

Chokecherry- Prunus virginiana: The pea-sized berries are eaten raw. They are tart, and tasty. They can be made into jams, jellies, preserves and pies. DO NOT eat the leaves or pits, they are toxic when ingested.

Wild Black Cherry- Prunus serotina: See Chokecherry.

Ground-Cherry- Physalis pubescens: The bright-orange berries looks like a tiny tomato and when fully ripe has a pleasant flavor. They can be eaten fresh or dried for Winter use. It is great when used as a preserves, jam, jellies, pies or in sauces. When making preserves, jam and jellies, a pectin rich fruit, or berry must be added, as ground-cherries are low in pectin.

Squawbush/Highbush Cranberry- Viburnum trilobum: Pick berries after the first frost and eat fresh or dried. They can be used in preserves, jam, jellies, and pies.

Shadbush/Juneberry/Serviceberry- Amelchier canadensis and spp.: The berries are juicy and black, best picked early, before wildlife gets there first. Can be used in preserves, jam, jellies, and pies.

Juniper Berries- Juniperus communis and spp.: Use fresh or dried for winter use. The berries are used in cooking to enhance bear, bison, venison, wapiti and salmon. The berries can also be used as a tea.

Wild Raisin/Nannyberry- Viburnum lentago: Eaten fresh or dried; the blue-black berries should be picked after the first frost. Frost sweetens the berries. Can be used in preserves, jam, jellies, and pies.

Nightshade- Solanaceae spp.: When FULLY ripe the berries can be cooked in stews. Picking the berries, when fully ripe and cooking them well, destroys the solanine alkaloid.

Squaw Vine/Partridgeberry- Mitchella repens: The berries taste bland and are rich in tannin. The berries are used in teas as a diuretic tonic.

Feverbush/Spicebush- Lindera benzoin: The yellow-red fruit has a spicy flavor. Can be dried and ground for use as you would black pepper.

Wild Plum- Prunus americana- See Beach Plum.

Teaberry/Checkerberry/Wintergreen- Gaultheria procumbens: Berries can be eaten raw or dried for later use. The berries and leaves were eaten raw or brewed into a tea to reduce fevers, minor aches and pains, and to reduce inflammation. They have a similar quality as willow, in that it contains a compound that is similar to aspirin.


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Can you actually buy cattail flour? Is there a substitute?

Halifax, MA(Zone 6a)

MaypopLaurel, I could only find this place.:

http://www.yellowpollen.com/
All prices include shipping and handling.

1 cup/4 oz $20
4 cups/1 lb. $60
16 cups/4 lbs. $225


Aquene (Peace),
WautuckquesSochepo (SnowRabbit)
(__/)
(='.'=)
(")_(")

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Yikes! Maybe I should be out there harvesting and planting my cattails.

So.App.Mtns., United States(Zone 5b)

So... catttail pollen is the same as the cattail brown fluff we see at the top that looks like a brown hot-dog but is also cattail flour?

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Hmm, I thought it was made from drying and pummeling the roots. I do know the brown stuff eventually blows up into a zillion white fluffy seed heads that look like dandelion seed. Wish I had known that before I made a huge arrangement of cattails in the guest bathroom. The room was inches deep in fluff.

So.App.Mtns., United States(Zone 5b)

Like I said... I have NO clue! I'd have thought the flour was from the roots too... so, what is the cattail pollen, and how does one use it?

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Ditto here in the clueless dept. but this knowledge is all that's standing between me and a small fortune what with all the cattails here.

Olympia, WA

Just grab Google, enter cattail pollen into the search space, and jump back - because you are going to learn a lot more than you even need to know. All the helpful hints are there on how to collect it, and use it.

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

Yes, but there is also information about making flour from the stalks and roots.

So.App.Mtns., United States(Zone 5b)

Since I don't have any cattails growing, it's not very high on my research "to-do" list.

Cleveland,GA/Atlanta, GA(Zone 7b)

lol. Since I don't care for standing in pond muck with the hellbenders and crawdaddies I'm with you there.

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