I have used grow lights in the past and they work well with getting an early start on the season. The down side I found is that they still do not put out enough light to prevent veggies from becoming leggy if used for an extended time.
I always put my lights about 2 inches above the plants (don't let the plants touch them) and I would turn them on in the morning (about 6AM) and turn them off when I went to bed (around 10PM). My plants were always healthy.
Note that you will still need to slowly introduce them to full sun or the will "sunburn". I started my plants off with direct morning sun of about 1 hour for a couple days and increased it by an hour every couple days after.
If they do get a little burned by the sun (their leaves will become pale and shrivel slightly) reduce the direct light a little and the usually bounce back.
Ditto. 12 hrs. on, 12 hrs. off, in two different rooms.
One warm room to germinate -- One cool room to grow on after potting up. Only 'cause my vents were wired that way, and rather than reroute everything, I use the hot and cold rooms to my growing advantage...
Grow lights. Regular fluorescent shop lights from HD. $10 per kit. Two kits per shelf, for a total of 4 bulbs per shelf.
I keep my lights 1" from the tops of the seedlings at all times, after they pop...