Any organic fertilizers should be OK (fish emulsion, blood/bone meal, etc). A word of caution though--while those things may not harm dogs, I've found that some of them are VERY attractive to dogs and cause my normally well behaved dogs to all of a sudden turn into digging machines, destroying my garden, eating the soil, etc (mine only act like this with organic fertilizers, chemical ones have no interest for them). So while organic might be safer, chemical ferts like the Osmocote or the Bayer stuff may not be as attractive so they wouldn't eat them in the first place.
I agree with purpleinopp and would rather use my own compost that is made all year round from all my garden waist and my household stuff from the kitchen plus shreaded newspapers etc. That way I know what is in my soil but I also try never to refuse any horse manure from any horses and sometimes it's already well rotted down other times it's fresh and I need to stack it and allow it to rot down, any animal manure is ready when it resembles a good crumbling composted soil and there is absolutely no smell from it, then it can be laid on top of the soil OR dig it into the soil where either way it holds in moisture, keeps weeds away, feeds the plants and also act's as a way of adding air to the soil around the roots when dug in, if laid on top of the soil, eventually the worms will take it down under the top soil.
Good luck, Weenel.