I have had lilies in a pot for several years and it works fine. Only suggestion I would have is to make sure and either change the soil periodically or keep it fertilized or your bulbs will get smaller each year.
I currently have a lily growing in a large plastic pot with a dwarf alberta spruce. They have been in the pot together for about 10 years since I planted other lilies from the same order in the ground and ran out of space in the spot. I just stuck it in the pot. It has grown faithfully there ever since. We have been plagued with the Lily Leaf beetle in the past 10 year period and the infestation has been in decline for the last 3 years or so, but not before they took out all the other lilies I had in the ground. This one is the only one left since it lives right by the kitchen door and I could hand pick the beetles off of it during their growing season. This is the second year in a row that this lily hasn't shown any sign of the LLB.
I would recommend a large pot so you can plant the bulbs at the proper depth.
I also put down bone meal on all bulbs in the spring and it seems to do the trick here.
Virtually anything that grows in the ground can be maintained in containers over the long term, with a little attention to the things that need to be done to prevent root congestion from incrementally reducing the plants opportunity/ability to realize it's genetic potential.
FWIW - bone meal is not only seldom of benefit in mineral soils (P and Ca are only rarely in short supply), it's essentially insoluble and unavailable to containerized plants. It's also far more likely to LIMIT vitality in containerized plant material than be of any benefit.
No singular element or combinations of elements (compounds) are plant stimulants. If an essential nutrient is in short supply (deficient) growth will be abnormally slow or exhibit symptoms of the deficiency until the supply again becomes adequate. At that point, normal growth can return - within the limits of any other deficiencies or cultural conditions that might exist. If an EXCESS of any nutrient or nutrients is present and available for uptake, the excess can be as limiting as a deficiency, and can even cause (antagonistic) deficiencies of other nutrients. Examples are: an excess of P can cause a deficiency of K, Cu, Fe, and Z, and an excess of Ca can cause deficiencies of K, Fe, Cu, B, Z, and Mg. P and Ca are the primary ingredients in bone meal.
Likely so in places where you have copious topsoil, Al. I have put new layers of compost in this container when I had it and put out bone meal on the bulbs, iris and peonies every spring as my topsoil in the garden is very limited and I constantly have to guard it from eroding. I will take a picture of this lily tomorrow and post here because it just started blooming today.
This spot gets full but limited sun every day. Enough to make flowering stuff bloom and to help tomato plants bear fruit. but not as much as my front yard gets.
This plant is in really good shape considering about 5-6 years ago I was fighting the Lily Leaf beetle for its survival. We are in the edge of an area that was used to release parasitic insects that prey on the LLB. I believe that the population has been cut out almost entirely by these and we are at the extreme edge of the test area. By the time I figured out what was happening, I couldn't participate in the study with larval specimens because I didn't have that many!