Note: gathered this info from old threads; feel free to add additional information you may find.
Layering ~ This technique is similar to rooting cuttings, but in layering the "cutting" is left attached to the mother plant until roots have formed. This allows the "cutting" to draw nutrients from the mother plant while forming roots resulting in a much higher rate of success.
rooting hormone (optional)
Remove the leaves from atleast an inch of the branch, then scrape the bark from the underside just a bit. Be careful not to scrape all the way around or you'll girdle the branch. Moisten the scraped area and add rooting hormone if desired. Dig a small indentation next to the mother plant, stake the scraped part of the branch in the bottom of the indentation, cover with dirt and water it in. Keep moist. Once roots have formed a nice root base (rooting time varies from plant to plant, sometimes taking weeks, sometimes months), cut from the mother plant and pot up.
This can also be done in pots ~ just stake the scraped branch in a pot filled with soilless mix or regular soil and wait for roots.
Air layering ~ This technique is similar to rooting cuttings, but in layering the "cutting" is left attached to the mother plant until roots have formed. This allows the "cutting" to draw nutrients from the mother plant while forming roots resulting in a much higher rate of success. This is similar to regular layering, but in this technique you bring the "soil" to the branch in a way.
peat moss (or other rooting medium that will hold moisture)
rooting hormone (optional)
Remove the leaves from atleast three inches of the branch, then scrape the bark from the underside just a bit. Be careful not to scrape all the way around or you'll girdle the branch. Moisten the scraped area and add rooting hormone if desired. Wrap the scraped area with moistened peat moss, sphagnum, soil or anything as long as it will hold moisture. Wrap this with plastic wrap to retain the moisture tying the ends closed with the bread ties firmly but not so tight it affects the rest of the branch. Keep moist and wait for roots (rooting time varies from plant to plant, sometimes taking weeks, sometimes months).
leaf propagation A: Cut healthy mature leaves with about 2" of leaf stalk and insert in the rooting medium. Set the cuttings deeply so the leaf almost touches the surface of the medium. Warmth, humidity maintained with glass or plastic cover. Shade is needed. When plants are 2" tall, plant as usual.
leaf propagation B: Select large, well-matured leaves and cut off with or without a small part of stalk. Cut veins or ribs on underside of leaf and place bottom side down on moist sand in warm place with light. Keep moist. Weight down with sand or pebbles. When new plants are 2", plant as usual.
Outdoor Autumn and Winter Sowing
Don't choose containers that are too deep, you will only make more work for yourself later on, egg boxes, yoghurt pots and similar make excellent containers for sowing seeds.
Make sure the containers you intend to use are scrupulously clean. I can't stress enough how vital hygiene is. There are several products on the market which cater for this, personally I soak them in very hot water 4-5 times and then scrub with a bottle brush and a little washing up liquid, rinsing well. If you have new trays and pots give them a good wash first.
4 points you need to make sure of prior to sowing:
1) The drainage holes are adequate, if you live in an area where the winter is likely to be wet, poor drainage will see off even incredibly hardy plants. A good idea is to have a couple of house bricks or similar so the container doesn't have contact with the ground.
2) You have a well sheltered area from the wind. This can be a small corner by a wall or by a hedge or shrub planting. Cold frames are invaluable for this kind of propagation, if you have one. Containers blown over will destroy all your hard work in a few seconds.
3) Adequate sunlight in the sheltered area, even a shady plant's seedling require some form of sunlight. Too little will make the seedlings grow leggy. Too much sunlight will scorch young seedlings.
4) Check out which plants have seeds that can successfully sown at this time of year. Many alpines, hardy perennials and hardy annuals will cope and even thrive with this form of sowing (Poppysue posted a great list not long ago).
Fill the containers you wish to use almost to the top (leave about half inch between soil and top of container) with good, fresh (not last years) seed potting compost. Multipurpose will work but will have too much fertiliser for young plants.
Tamp down the soil lightly with a board or the bottom of a pot, the surface should be level but not compacted.
Moisten the soil with a hand sprayer or a watering can with a fine rose. You don't want wet soil, just make sure its moist.
Sow the seeds sparsely on the soil surface, you don't want to be out there in the rain, wind or snow pricking out overcrowded seedlings. Also a mass of overcrowded, weakened seedlings will allow fugal diseases to take hold quickly.
Most seeds require a little soil cover, you can sprinkle a little soil over the top of the sown seeds. Vermiculite or silver sand will do the same job but again only a very thin layer. As a general rule the seeds should be covered only their own depth with soil or other medium.
Tiny seeds generally need light to germinate but check on this before sowing, mixing the tiny seeds with a little silver sand, sow on top of the soil and leave the top layer off, is the best way to deal with them.
Label the containers and fix the label securely, it's an obvious thing to say but I know a good many gardeners who lose their labels and can't remember what's in the containers. I prone to doing it myself. Adding the date of sowing is also a good guide to knowing an approximate date of when the seedlings should appear.
If the seeds require darkness for germination such as most Viola species, cover the container with foil and check every day to see if any have sprouted. Once sprouting occurs remove the foil cover. Condensation shouldn't be a problem outdoors but if it is, change the foil to light card.
If you need to water once the seedlings are up, use a hand spray bottle or soak the sown containers from the bottom with a tray or in the sink. Don't use a watering can without a fine rose. The soil should be kept moist but not wet.
If you wish to cover the seeds with a clear lid to prevent too much rain and pests getting to the seedlings make sure there are some air holes. Ventilation is important to preventing fungal diseases from getting a hold, Botrytis will rapidly take over and kill seedlings.
A plastic pop or milk bottle with the bottom cut off are great if you can weight them down. Equally you can use a food tray with a clear lid as a container and cover combo or a clear freezer bag with a little stake inside the container and bag to stop it from falling onto the seedlings. Make sure all clear covers are secure and don't forget to add air holes!
Place outside in the sheltered area designated and keep an eye on how they are doing. Keep a close look out for possible pest attacks and deal with them quickly should they occur.
A lot of the plants recommended for autumn and winter sowing will take a couple of months to appear, this is perfectly natural. I keep most pots for over a year, its surprising what will come up two or even three years after sowing. Check for signs of growth at least once a week (you never know they may be out to prove me wrong).
Once the seedlings have two true leaves, (the first seedling leaves are cotyledons-seed leaves, the two after that are true leaves) you can thin or prick them out into another more suitable container. Do this carefully and never hold the stalk, a pen is a good cheap implement to help lift out the individual seedlings. Don't damage the seedling roots, a few extra minutes and a light hand will make sure most of your seedlings will make it to adulthood. Hold the true leaves together lightly when lifting out, ensure that the roots are free from the soil before doing this!
The same methods can be adopted for indoor or cold greenhouse sowing in these seasons (without the cover).
Pre-sprouting Seeds in Damp Paper Towel
I use this method for almost all my seeds unless they're just too darn tiny. It takes a bit longer but you have more control over moisture & temperature, the results are better, there's no waste with thinning, and you can watch what's going on with them. If the seeds aren’t viable – they’ll rot quickly and you aren't left staring at an empty flat for weeks wondering if they'll ever come up.
Cut paper towels into quarters, label with name of the seeds and the date. Then sprinkle the seeds on the paper towel, mist it with water until it's good and damp (not soggy), and fold the towel in ½ or quarters. Place the towel squares in a covered container or a zip-loc bag. I've found the aluminum cake pans with the clear plastic lids work well. I keep a pan in my refrigerator for seeds that need moist pre-chilling and a pan on the kitchen counter for those that germinate in warm temps. A few things that require darkness I'll seal in a zip lock bag and place in a dark cupboard. The seeds that require light seem to be do fine with the clear lid on the pan.
Check the seeds at least every other day to see what has sprouted. Some seeds take just a few days - others take weeks. Any of the seed that have sprouted should be potted up. Plant them in potting mix with the little root going down and lightly cover with soil. After potting place them under lights or in a sunny window. They'll usually break the soil surface the next day. It's important to pot them as soon as you see signs of germination - if you let them go too long they'll grow into the paper towels and it's hard to remove them without breaking the roots.
With this method you’re not left wondering - did I over water? Is it too cold? Are the seeds any good? Or what the heck is the matter with these seeds? You can watch them closely and provide them with what they need. If I think they need warmer temps than usual I'll put them in a bag and place them on top of the TV. If they need oscillating temps (such as cleome seeds) I'll put them in the fridge at night & bring them out during the day. For seeds you have no idea how to germinate you can try a couple of different methods in the paper towels to see what works best.
Inarching is a form of graftage useful for creating a new plant or a continuous row of connected plants. You will need a stock, the plant part which will receive another, usually a root or stem, and a cion, which is any plant part, usually of a stem, inserted in a stock for propagation. The two should be placed in close proximity such as setting a plant in a pot next to another plant, either in the ground or in another pot. Using a sharp knife, make a clean cut or slice into the stem of both stock and cion. Bring the cut surfaces together and tie firmly, where they will remain until they have united. Outdoors, it will be necessary to wax and stake the plants to prevent drying and separating. When the two have grown together, cut away the base of the cion and the top of the stock, which results in a plant or tree with the roots of the one and the top of the other. If you wish to leave them attached, you can skip cutting either stock or cion, and they will continue to grow as if they were Siamese twins.
This is a variation of inarching called the "bottle graft". It works great for apples, among others. It eliminates drying-out of the scion, the biggest cause of graft failure.
Place the scion in a bottle of water. This will form your new plant. Diameter around 3/8ths inch,length about a foot.
Set the bottle near the rootstock plant. Make sure the water is shaded from the sun.
Make an upward cut in the stem of the scion barely more than halfway thru and about 3 inches above the top of the bottle. This cut should be about 3/4 inch long.
Cut off the top of the rootstock plant, forming a tapered wedge cut the same length on the tip. Diameter of this part should be about the same.
Insert rootstock wedge into scion cut and wrap with tape or waxed cloth strip.
Make sure bottle stays full of water.
When new growth appears on the scion, remove the bottle and cut off the part below the graft.
The rootstock can be a seedling tree grown in a pot. If this is the case, wait till new growth hardens to transplant.
Stem Cuttings & Division.
Stem Cuttings: Take a cutting of a healthy stem that's not flowering. Strip off the leaves on the bottom section (roots will grow from those spots on some plants), leaving 2-4 (I think) leaves on top. Place the stem in water, or dip the stem in rooting hormone & plant in the appropriate soil.
Potted Plant Division: Take the plant out of the pot and carefully loosen enough soil from the roots to separate the section(s) to divide. If necessary, use a SHARP knife to break the section.
TRENCH CUTTINGS. Useful when many plants are needed for a hedge etc!
Take cuttings in late summer as soon as the new shoots have become woody. However, it will be less damaging for the parent plant if you take the cutting on a frost-free winter day and also gives you more time. You can also take hardwood cuttings from the material left over after you have given shrubs their winter pruning. This can be less time-consuming in the long run. If cuttings are taken in late summer the little branches must be rooted and taken care of immediately. However, if you take cuttings during winter, you cannot finally plant them until spring. Until then, they must be heeled in (roughly planted) to keep them alive!! Three-quarter-ripe shoots that have been developed during spring are the most suitable to use for hardwood cuttings. They are easy to recognize by their semi-mature state. The older, darker shoots are too woody and are more difficult to root. Only the fast-growing poplars and willows can make roots from old wood. Each cutting should be approx 20cm long (which is the length of an ordinary pair of secateurs) and should have either four of five buds. To make sure you do not put the cuttings into the ground upside-down, cut them off straight at the top just above a bud and angle them at the bottom, just under the bud. This angled end is also easier to push into the ground than a straight cut. Always make the cut so that it is immediately above an'eye' or bud. Cuttings without eyes are useless - they will simply wither! Make a trench in the soil by putting a spade into the ground (spade depth) along a taut piece of string and wiggle it back and forth until you have a trench. Put the cuttings in the ground (trench) plaing them 10cm apart and backfill with soil. Only the top 'eye' should peep out - the others should make roots. After a few weeks, the first leaves will start to show. You can now lift them and plant in their permanent position or plant in pots for future planting.
You can start the rooting process during winter. Window boxes are ideal for this. Fill them with a mixture of equal parts of garen soil and sand. Place the cuttings into the soil at a distacne of 2-3cm apart and plant them so that only the top 'eye' is visible above the soil. Place the window boxes in a warm and light location and keep the soil most but avoid over-watering. When the cuttings produce their first leaves after a few weeks lift and separate them carefully and plant in pots in the spring.
Cuttings in Water
Place the cuttings in water (a jam jar for instance) but remove them as soon as the roots have formed otherwise they will rot!
Surface Planting Seeds Indoors:
When seeds require light to germinate, packet instructions will indicate "surface planting", sowing the seed on a seed starting medium, then pressing them into the surface without covering them. This is my method:
1. Prepare Containers: Wash containers in hot soapy bleach water, rinse, and drain.
2. Prepare Medium: Sterilized seed starter is available at most garden centers. It is designed for germinating seed. Once opened, be sure to reclose the bag if you have left-overs to avoid contamination. Add the needed amount of sterilized seed starting medium to a clean large container, then add clean water, toss as a salad, then let it sit a few moments to become evenly moist. The mixture should have the consistancy of cake (baked, not batter). Do not get too moist. When the proper consistancy, place in the dry clean containers you have prepared. Shake lightly to level the medium, then press down lightly with the bottom of another clean container of the same size. Mist the surface lightly with warm water. Now you are ready to plant.
3. Planting the Seeds: If the seed is fine, I mix it with a small amount of washed, sterilized sand to disperse the seed evenly in the container and to secure the seed in place during germination. I do not press the seeds down, but rather mist the surface again, taking care not to spray too closely which could wash the seed/sand mixture away.
4. Germination: I highly recommend purchasing plant flats with domed lids for indoor germination. They are available as sets, with the cell packs included at most places that sell planting supplies. I place the container of sown seed into the flat, cover with the domed clear lid, and place under fluorescent lights that are placed about 2" above the dome top. Be sure to label the sown container so that you know when to expect germination and what will be coming up.
5. Care: During the waiting period, keep moisture within the domed flat by misting the inside of the dome lid and letting the moisture "rain" onto the containers. I do not bottom water since it encourages the seeds to rot rather than germinate. As long as the dome lid looks misty, there is probably enough moisture for the seeds.
6. After germination:Once the new plants start to come up, you must take note as to whether they anchoring themselves into the surface or not. If not, you can add some vermiculite to the surface. Keep the seedlings under light, and leave the domes on the flats.
7. Care: To minimize misting, I leave the dome lid on as long as possible, but as the seedlings grow the lid should be gradually eliminated to accommodate their height and to get them used to the new environment. You can begin venting the dome lid by setting it askew or propping one end up.
Feeding: The first round leaves that emerge from the seeds are cotyleydon. These feed the seedlings until true leaves develop. Since the medium you planted in is "sterile", the seedlings will probably need fertiizer once they have attained some size, This can be added to the water once the plants are mature enough to water from the bottom, rather than misting.
Note: If you have a window ledge with adequate sun, the
fluoescent light might not be necessary, but generally, window light is not intense enough to keep the seedlings from becoming leggy.
Note: Failure to use sterilized medium or to clean all containers can result in "dampening off", that disheartening event that occurs when your beautiful new seedlings start rotting off at the stem and falling like fallen trees.
Propagation: Overview of techniques
Note: gathered this info from old threads; feel free to add additional information you may find.
Alyssum - those are true lilies... different than daylilies. I'll find some threads on the daylilies since I know you'll be getting some soon. I edited my store a bit since you ordered and I should have put a note in your seeds. When they arrive store them in your fridge until you're ready to plant them.
I also added Irishman's cuttings and Root cuttings to Garden Terms and Tip cuttings can be found in my journal.
Basic fern spore sowing
Sterilise the sowing pots with boiling water as the spores are very susceptable to fungal and algae attacks.
Add the potting media to the pan, firm down evenly.
Sow the spores on the potting media surface, evenly and sparsely. Add a label!
Cover the sown pot with glass or clear plastic sheet. Place in a shady spot indoors or in a cold frame/greenhouse (depending on the genera you are sowing)
In 8-12 weeks the pot surface will have prothalli (which looks like a moss). This is normal and is a pre-germination stage. The male and female organs develop on this and they form the fern plantlets.
In another 12-16 weeks the plantlets should be large enough to be pricked out and potted up individually.
This message was edited Friday, Nov 22nd 4:32 PM
THROW AND GROW
I wanted to point out that mid & late summer is a great time to start biennial and perennial seeds. Seeds started now will be blooming plants for next year. I no longer have a veggie garden but I used to sow seeds in the veggie patch after I pulled out an early crop that quit producing - like lettuce, spinach or radishes. I'd direct seed the spot with sweet Williams, foxglove, bellflowers, dianthus or any other quick germinating flowers. The seeds sprout quickly in the warm soil if you keep them watered and you can move them in the fall or early spring when you're ready to turn it back over to veggies. . . .Another easy little trick is to take some of the seed heads off of the flowers that have matured in your garden and toss them in the veggie patch. They will re-seed right there where you toss them. Easy as pie. I stuck to things that should germinate easily THIS season.
Basket of Gold Alyssum
Bellflowers - campanula (almost any of them)
Painted daisy (pyrethrum)
Dianthus - (Sweet Williams, Maiden Pinks, Cottage Pinks - Just about any Pink!)
Foxgloves - ( any digitalis species)
Perennial candytuft - iberis
Perennial sweetpea vine
Rose Campion (lychnis coronaria)
Maltese Cross (lychnis chalcedonica)
Forget me Nots - (myosotis)
Nepeta - catnip OR catmint
Malvas; mallows; & sidalcea (checkerbloom)
Verbascum - (Mulleins)
I'm going to plant agastache, aster, belamcanda, catananche, eupatorium, gaura, lychnis, lupine
I've been sowing seeds in large pots and they've been doing well. So far I have yellow and apricot foxgloves, caryopteris, maltese cross, lynchnis angel blush, yellow columbine, baptisia, and 4 echinacea plants that Poppysue sent me the seeds for this spring to put in my beds this fall. I've just planted dierama, stokesia purple parasols, primula, and red gaillardia. I've been doing this for about 3 years and it seems like the plants do really well because they have all winter to develop their root systems for the next year. Linda T
MOTHER NATURE'S DECEMBER SOWING
- better germination rate - birds cant steal the seeds
- Mother Nature does the watering if too much-drains out bottom
- freezing and thawing stratifies seeds that need it
- protects from wind
- acts as kind of a cold frame or greenhouse
- Mother Nature takes care of hardening off
- no damping off
- WHAT OTHER KIND OF SOWING COULD YOU DO IN DECEMBER?!
metal tins with clear plastic domed lids (take-out boxes from restuarants)Purchased at Smart & Final
- label bottom of pan with identification
- poke holes with knife in bottom for drainage
- fill halfway with soil
- sprinkle with water and let drain
- sprinkle seeds over & press a little
- fill with more soil to correct depth for planting
- poke holes with knife in clear plastic domed lid
- put lid on and tape shut
- PUT OUTSIDE
- start checking on watering needs
- gradually widen slits in lid
TRANSPLANT TO GARDEN
- water as needed
- very diluted fertilizer
- after 8 weeks-can go to full strenth fertilizer
-Notes on seed packets which indicate this type of sowing:
Hardy, Needs Stratification, Self Sows, Will Colonize, Sow outdoors in early Autumn, early Spring when nights still cool, in early Spring while frost may still occur, can be direct sewn early, wildflowers
Note: Have lengthly list of these- email if you would like it.
I think this is an extremely useful thread that needed to be brought to the top of the stack. :-)
Thanks for the info TLC and everyone!
I am propagating (well--trying) hens and chickens(echeveria elegans); kalanchoe; ctenanthe lubbersiana(Brazillian snow,ginger plant);sanseviera(snake plant, mother in law's tongue); philodendrons; purple velvet plant. My begonia's did great. I hope all my others do. You'd think I didn't have the "mother" plant with all the propagating I'm doing. Any suggestions would help. I'll let you know how they're doing. Thanks, Liz
For layering you write, "Remove the leaves from atleast an inch of the branch, then scrape the bark from the underside just a bit. Be careful not to scrape all the way around or you'll girdle the branch."
Check out a page at the Vale of Clwyd Bonsai Society's web site http://www.actionvideo.freeserve.co.uk/layering.html . The author writes about Tourniquet Air Layering and Ring Bark Air Layering.
For Tourniquet Air Layering they write, "A wire loop is placed around the trunk and crossed over itself so that it encircles the point where new roots are required. It should be tightened, by twisting with pliers, to the point where it is biting in. This will slow down the sap flow and the constriction will increase as the tree builds in girth."
For Ring Bark Air Layering, "It involves removing the bark for a length of about 1" to 2" all the way around the trunk or branch that is going to form the new plant (ring barking). The edges should be a clean cut and right down to the harder wood beneath. Any remaining soft sappy tissue, the cambium layer, must be scraped down to wood. Otherwise it provides a nutrient path and hinders rooting or calluses over again completely."
I am doing ring bark layering on my Pyracantha/Firethorn (3), 'Fire Dance' Chinese Fringe Flower/Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum (3) and my 'Pride of Mobile' Azalea (1). (I am also doing a standard air layering on my Fringe Flower for comparison.)
I started these 5 days ago and none of the vegetation above the layering is looking any worse for the wear. I'll post when the 7 are finished.
Nice to meet you; none of this info is mine; I just collected it all together in one place. This is my second year gardening and I can't even get seeds to germinate. That is why I collected this all in one place; easier to find to re-read.
Any advice you can add here is much appreciated.
I just wanted you to know that I really appreciate your work on this thread. I have it 'bookmarked' so I can find it easily...but I forgot about it until now. :-D
I'm bumping it back to the top so others will see it too.
Thank you for taking the time to create this thread!!!!
Thanks Arlene and all the conributors. I am going to print it out and stick it in my seed box.
This is a wonderful job of gathering good information Arlene, and thank you and "all" for a great Thread. We're having spring in the South in the first month of the year (2005) and winter in May, good luck to all.
Shouldn't this be a sticky here in the Propagation forum?
Dave or an Admin would have to make the decision, make a request on Dave's Garden.......please.
Jan 29, 2005
Interesting articles on the Germination Process and the various
methods used. I discovered a number of things and thought others
might find the information of interest.
This message was edited Jan 31, 2005 8:46 AM
I hope you put a 'Watch' on this thread. The links you posted are not working.
Robin~ She cut and pasted them from another forum. If I find it, I will put a link to that forum here, then you can use those links...
From VGMKY (Gary):
Interesting articles on the Germination Process and the various
methods used. I discovered a number of things and thought others
might find the information of interest.
H2O2 also known as oxy-plus or hydrogen peroxide
... H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) 250 ml at £3.49 + 1 Free. What are
the benefits. Not only ... Seed Germination - 10 Drops per 1 litre of tepid water, soak seed for
... My experiments showed that small concentrations of hydrogen
peroxide can be successfully used to provide oxygen to seeds for germination. ...
(Sorry this link no longer exists)
Biochemical stimulation of plant growth: Presoaking, Acid ... ... as a stimulant of germination. Very dilute hydrogen peroxide also
accelerates later growth if used only occasionally. (7) Gibberillin ~ When seeds absorb water ...
Science Buddies: The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Rooting of ... The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Rooting of Plant Cuttings and Seed. Germination Objective. The purpose of this project is to ...
How to Germinate Seed
... OTHER TREATMENTS: Soaking seed in potassium nitrate (KNO3),
hydrogen peroxide, citric acid ... solutions have all been used to trigger germination of
Can I grow roses from seeds? How? - Rose Propagation ... When looking for germination, you will see a single root-tip
breaking through the seed. ... add water to your planting mix, use the water-hydrogen peroxide mix ...
... Soaking the seed in a cup of water with a ... bleach or a quarter teaspoon of 3% hydrogen
peroxide for a ... which are most likely to occur during germination, add one ...
(link is gone)
Dave's Garden Forums: Daylilies: 100% germination
... There seems to be much improved germination of sprouting daylily seeds when they
are soaked in a 1 ounce solution of house-hold hydrogen peroxide mixed into 2 ...
A Note on Propagation
... meet the optimum conditions for germination: ie: Where ... Hydrogen Peroxide** Use the
kind you buy over the ... Again all moisture treated seed hold more moisture ...
(link is gone)
The Baggie Method -
... I use 5 ml of drugstore type 3 % hydrogen peroxide to 95 ... towels in the fridge to stratify the seed, in my ... The other 50% of species get 0% germination in fridge ...
Growing Rare Fruit From Seed
... Hydrogen Peroxide This is commonly available in a 3% solution. ... The peroxide may then be diluted in half ... been mentioned as having an effect on seed germination. ...
This message was edited Feb 28, 2009 8:09 AM
Just accessed this thread for info.
Thanks again TLC
Still good for all the right reasons!
I still refer to it; Thanks to all the people whose threads contributed to it.
Wow!!!! What a lot of information that you have collected, TwinlakesChef! I've got to start copying this somewhere safe. Awesome info!
I still refer back to it; wish someone would add in more.
Most of the links are no longer working, unfortunately.
happy_macomb: Scroll to the bottom of this page and choose "contact us". Let DG Admin know that the links are no longer working.