A poplar is tall and thin and grows very rapidly.
I have a flowering plum, which is tall and thin and just gorgeous in spring when it blossoms. Actually with the dark colored leaves, it's pretty all the time. (If you can find a double flowering one, it is exceptionally beautiful.)
Another idea might be a hedge that can be trimmed to size or a lilac tree could trimmed to shape.
How about a Redbud or Pagoda Dogwood? I was trying to find a tree about this same size to underplant under our Ash tree that our wonderful tree trimmer destroyed by hacking off a large branch that provided some wonderful shade on our patio. I couldn't scream fast enough for him not to cut it off! Errrr, still gets me mad. Personally, I would go with a Midwest native tree for hardiness.
Our local Arboretum has a nice website that you might find helpful to select a tree. The website is mortonarb.org, choose Plant Trees, choose Selection Guide, then a list will come up.. if you choose Native Trees to Midwest a whole list of native trees will come up sorted by height but there's a bunch of other information there too that may help you. Give it a try, you might find something useful there to help in your selection. I would think all Midwest natives could handle your climate as well as ours here. Good luck with your choice.