Hardiness: USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 °C (-20 °F) USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 °C (-15 °F) USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 °C (-10 °F) USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 °C (-5 °F) USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 °C (0 °F) USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 °C (5 °F) USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 °C (10 °F) USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 °C (15 °F) USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 °C (20 °F) USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 °C (25 °F)
Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade Light Shade Partial to Full Shade
Danger: All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested Handling plant may cause skin irritation or allergic reaction
Bloom Color: Pale Yellow
Bloom Time: Mid Spring Late Spring/Early Summer
Foliage: Grown for foliage Herbaceous Variegated Chartreuse/Yellow Smooth-Textured
Other details: May be a noxious weed or invasive This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds This plant is suitable for growing indoors Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater
Soil pH requirements: 6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic) 6.6 to 7.5 (neutral) 7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)
Patent Information: Non-patented
Propagation Methods: By dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs (including offsets) From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse
Seed Collecting: Allow unblemished fruit to ripen; clean and dry seeds Wear gloves to protect hands when handling seeds
On Oct 29, 2012, bluethumb3 from South Deerfield, MA wrote:
I have had a positive experiance with this plant in my zone 5b garden in full sun, and well drained loam about 4" deep Planted it 4 years ago, bloomed the second year, has stayed in a 18" patch, and grows to about 15" tall. Comes up in October kinda goes into limbo for the winter and continous to grow in spring,flowers in mid June,dies back in August, and starts all over again in October
On Oct 8, 2012, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:
A beautiful plant that isn't invasive in the Northeast. I've grown it in moist garden soil for over ten years, and in that time the clumps have gotten fuller but not much wider. This plant isn't aggressive in my garden, nor in those of any gardeners I know, at least as far south as Philadelphia. Herbaceous plants with beautiful winter foliage are few and far between. Great interplanted with hostas, to timeshare garden space.
On Aug 12, 2012, shanghaifanny from Cleveland, OH wrote:
I've lived in my little lakeside cottage on the shoreline of Lake Erie in Cleveland, Ohio for 23 years. My yard is very shady and the soil is mostly clay-like. This summer (2012) we have our first Italian Arum stalk (just one) in 15 years. I love this plant and wish it were invasive in my yard. More than one plant every 15 years would be a delight. Does anyone have any suggestions how I might encourage another one of these plants (or more) to grow? Last winter was very mild and those lovely arrowhead-like leaves were present and quite hardy. Do the orange berries drop and reseed another plant? I'm no green thumb, but I'm willing to learn what I need to do to grow more of these cool Italian Arum plants.
I believe this plant came into my garden through horse manure or commercial mushroom compost. I'm convinced it's spreading underground, possibly along the bindweed network that underlies my garden. It has multiplied about a hundred-fold since last year, so this year I've undertaken a zero-tolerance policy and am digging up every blasted corm. I also think that it only takes one cell of this thing to clone itself, although I'm sure I'm missing some of the tiny corms when I remove the big ones, because they attach dirt to themselves and just look like little dirt balls. Nasty stuff! I'm finally realizing that I can't put it into the green bins, because the green bins go to our local composting plant, and I'd just be spreading misery all over town. Do not let this spread any more in California!
On Jul 15, 2011, delbertyoung56m from Medina, NY wrote:
Planted Italian Arum 10 years ago and it is not invasive in Medina, NY. It grows exactly where orignally planted and has gotten larger, but has not invaded its neighbors. It is in part to full shade, and the leaves are green even in the winter, when the snow is moved aside.
Yep, it's invasive! Yep, it's very pretty. Which side of the coin depends on circumstances but you will have been warned if you saw this page. I've enjoyed the plant over the years and never had as much trouble with it as I've had with other invaders-
I've had more invasion issues from it's cousin the Voodoo Lilly, lamium galeobdolon luteum, viola odorata, hypericum (not sure which I have but it's taking over) to name a few culprits. I seem to have managed to inherit a swelling army of notorious invaders over the years. It would be funny if it wasn't such a drag.
I have liked italian arum for giving a lush tropical look to dry shade but wouldn't plant voluntarily it if I was concerned about escapes or inundation. [Sonoma CA]
I tried for 7 or 8 years to eradicate this beautiful, but invasive plant, but it thrived and spread where it had not grown before. I sifted soil, removing what bulbs I could see. I burned emerging shoots methodically. I tried many sprays. Finally a commercial gardener suggested SpeedZone. I have used this two years and now am winning the battle. I have allowed only one patch of Arum italicum in our yard because my wife likes it for flower arrangements. This patch is surrounded by concrete and cannot escape. And I do not allow the seeds to escape. I cut them down during the summer after the leaves have died back. New leaves emerge in the fall or winter to repeat the cycle. If you do want to grow them, plant them in stainless steel or concrete and don't allow them to escape. Put a warning on any that you want to sell or give away. IMHO Arum italicum should not be sold!
I have beautiful leaves, but the flower, will not complete and no red berries, I replanted in another area and it still will not bloom. It still came up in the original spot. How do I get this to bloom?. It needs a lot of water or the leaves curl. This plant was first planted in 2005.
We live in Arkansas where this corm was already planted in one spot in the yard by the previous homeowners. At first we liked it, as it was the only planted plant that was green even on the coldest winter days. Last year I decided I didn't want to let the green-turning-red corn cob-like seed heads to replant themselves, so I cut them off with pruning sheers. OUCH! My skin started prickling and itching and the effects lasted over an hour or more. One of the reviewers said this was the chemical, calcium oxylate. Interesting. I would be worried about children getting their hands on these alluring seed heads. I decided I didn't want this plant in the yard, so when the leaves reappeared in the autumn, I sprayed them with RoundUp, but they resprouted some months later. So, now it is late June, and the seed heads are just turning red. What we have noticed is that many plants do not grow near this plant, like a chemical warfare is going on, at least not the common Wood Violet that we allow to grow in our mulched bed, acting as a ground cover. Especially noticeable when the leaves die in the spring.
As for a herbicide to use, we've noticed glyphosate (Round Up) doesn't always work well with broad-leaved weeds, and especially plants with tubers, corms, and bulbs. I plan to try 2,4-D of 9% (I get it at Tractor Supply),or Spectracide Triple Strike, that contains fluazifop, DMA salt of dicamba, and diquat dibromide on these plants.
If you want something similar that is native, try planting Green Dragons. We have some that come up naturally in the yard.
On Jun 2, 2010, toughcheesesmallpaws from Cincinnati, OH wrote:
We are in Ohio and I'm curious about this plant. After buying our first house we're finding all sorts of volunteer plants in our yard from muscari, to daffodils, the morning glories that have taken over the side of the yard, three types of ivy, to the balding cypress that my husband thought was dead until it suddenly sprouted green, to the myriad of rose bushes that had been hacked down and are trying to grow again to this plant that took us forever to identify.
I think it's neat looking and I want more of a green yard that I don't have to fuss too much with. Right now it's taken up residence along our back fence and seems pretty tame. It's only in a small 3 foot patch and seems to have it's leaves dying down (is that normal) with the berry stalks just starting to green. I'm wondering if it is over crowded and want to spread it out. If I can get it to grow along that fence and not have to try to maneuver the lawn mower along there I'm happy.
Everyone seems to say it's pretty invasive, but I think the honey suckle is much more invasive (I'm battling it out with 4 bushes that were allowed to get taller than my house!).
On Apr 2, 2010, hermero from Portland, OR (Zone 8b) wrote:
When we moved to this property about 18 years ago, Arum appeared in a few places and I thought it was nice to have green sprouting in late winter. Now it's multiplying on a grand scale. I,m now removing all seed heads before they turn orange. I've tried digging, but can never get all the baby corms. Tried Roundup which will kill the leaves if the weather stays dry enough, but the next year's growth seems just as strong. I just read a suggestion on another site about adding detergent and liquid fertilizer to the Round up which I may try this year. Anyone with a certain method for removal, please post it. FYI:This is on the invasive list for Oregon.
On Mar 4, 2010, angelclaw from Sacramento, CA wrote:
I have several of these growing in a bed with geraniums, roses, calla lilies and naked ladies. There are a few more in my backyard under a meyer lemon tree. I haven't had any problems with it being invasive - the geraniums are far worse in that regard. I almost never water it and the ones in the geranium bed get full sun all summer long. The one under the lemon tree gets more shade, water and even Miracle-Gro but it hasn't spread much either. I don't know if it's the hot, dry summers or something in the soil but I don't seem to have the same problems with this plant that plague my fellow CA gardeners.
On Feb 13, 2010, nolansland from Santa Clara, CA wrote:
Good grief. My neighbor told me about this little-shop-of-horrors of a plant a few years ago, encouraging me to dig it up and dispose of it immediately if I ever saw it. Had I heeded his warning then, I would not be dealing with the mass infestation I have now. This afternoon I decided to start getting rid of it in earnest.
Add me to the list of disgruntled CA gardeners with this cuckoo of an arum.
At least it's more enjoyable to those in other parts of the country. Maybe I'll list it for trade...hmmm.
On Jul 9, 2009, dianejnichols from Longmont, CO wrote:
I am going to try this plant in Firestone, Colorado. Last winter we visited the Denver Botanical Garden specifically to see what was green in winter. We found Arum Italicum with beautiful green leaves and the full clusters of orange-red berries just beautiful. I believe DBG is in Zone 5, as are we. Will post again with what success (or not) that we have with it here. I doubt that I have to worry about its invasiveness in this zone.
On May 14, 2008, stormyla from Norristown, PA (Zone 6b) wrote:
It behaves wonderfully in my shade garden. I've had no growth outside of the clumps. I love the green all winter. I'm in the Philadelphia area. My freinds who live 40 minutes south of here in New Jersey are thrilled to have me come dig theirs up as it pops up everywhere in their beds.
On Dec 9, 2007, henryr10 from Cincinnati, OH (Zone 6b) wrote:
I feel the pain of those of you in the more temperate areas.
I saw several areas in CA that were overrun w/ it.
Here in Ohio though it's very mild mannered.
In fact too mild mannered here.
I'm having trouble getting it to spread.
It makes a great succession plant.
I have it in a bed w/ Jack-in-the Pulpit, Mayapple (very invasive but so impressive in spring) and Hosta.
So we get a 4 season display.
On Jul 11, 2007, wonderearth from Santa Cruz, CA (Zone 9b) wrote:
I have this growing in my flower beds and it is a pain. I have had some success eradicating it by digging it up carefully so as not to leave any bulblets. It is a very vigorous plant here. It has even popped up in my potted plants!
On Jun 30, 2007, Lady_fern from Jeffersonville, IN (Zone 6a) wrote:
It sounds like this plant should be avoided in the warmer zones. Here in zone 6 it behaves quite nicely. It stays in a clump and multiplies slowly like any plant would. Of course, I'm growing it under a pine tree and a maple tree and in pure clay soil, so the conditions are far from ideal. Maybe its robust nature helps it thrive where other plants have suffered. I love the stalks of berries in summer and the foliage in winter. I don't mind it going dormant in the summer because I'd rather have the foliage in the winter anyway!
On Aug 29, 2005, Scorpioangel from Gold Hill, OR (Zone 7a) wrote:
This plant will grow anywhere. It can be invasive, spread by bulbets, seed, moles, gophers, and squirrels. Nothing eats on them. Wonderful foliage for the winter months. Great Orange color when seeds ripen in late summer.
On Apr 18, 2005, futhark from Witter Springs, CA wrote:
Avoid at any cost!! Ever since moving to my present home on 2 1/2 acres 18 years ago, I have watched Arum italicum extend its coverage, displacing even crabgrass. This is in spite of all the hours I have spent each spring chopping down every single blossom and disposing of every single seed pod I could find. It flourishs in under the big oaks and grows to a couple of feet high in the spring. The leaf petioles and blades are semi-succulent and are filled with tiny crystals of calcium oxylate, visible in a high-power microscope. The calcium oxylate effectively deters any insect or other herbivore from eating the plants and, if you handle them, will make the skin between your fingers itch, much like fiberglas. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED! DO NOT SPREAD THIS PEST!!
On Mar 1, 2005, Zuzu from Sebastopol, CA (Zone 9a) wrote:
One of my neighbors planted one arum bulb about 30 years ago. The entire neighborhood is infested with it now. It is impossible to kill. Round-up won't kill it. When you try to dig it up, you release all of the tiny bulblets attached to the big one, and you end up with 50 plants where you once had one. I haven't seen my azaleas bloom for years. The arum is taller than the azalea. The arum dies down in March, allowing me to reclaim my garden, but by then the azaleas are finished blooming. One of my neighbors kept mowing it for four years and finally killed it, but that's impossible to do if it's in your flower beds. Another neighbor actually sold his house to get away from it. Please use caution planting this, and make sure you really love it, because it might be the only thing in your garden after a while. It is certain to outlive all of us.
On Jul 30, 2004, CatskillKarma from West Kill, NY wrote:
My zone 4b/5a garden was too cold for it. I planted half a dozen bulbs in a sheltered shady area. The first year, only one came up. After that, none survived. I have grown other arums successfully in the same area, including black dragon and basic Jack-in-the-pulpit.
On Sep 22, 2001, Terry from Murfreesboro, TN (Zone 7a) wrote:
A good companion for hostas; when the hostas die back in the fall, Arum will produce leaves repeating the shape of the dormant hostas, and remain green all winter. Plants produce white spathes of flowers in late spring, then go dormant as the hostas re-emerge. The berries form after the flowering is completed, and remain to provide late spring interest.
Partial shade;average,well drained soil
with organic matter.
Plant in late summer or early fall.
Set the tubers into individual holes or
larger planting areas dug 2-3inches(5-7.5cm)
deep. Space the tubers 8-12inches(20-30cm)
apart. Keep the soil moist during leaf
growth and flowering.
Propagation:Divide in early fall;otherwise,
allow plants to form handsome clumps.
This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:
, (3 reports) Anniston, Alabama Smiths, Alabama Vincent, Alabama Garfield, Arkansas Carlotta, California Chico, California Clovis, California Encinitas, California Hoopa, California Lodi, California Menlo Park, California Merced, California Sacramento, California Santa Clara, California Santa Cruz, California Sonoma, California Ukiah, California Walnut Creek, California Clifton, Colorado Shelton, Connecticut Ashley, Illinois Chicago, Illinois Mackinaw, Illinois Peoria, Illinois Washington, Illinois Oak Park, Indiana Independence, Kansas Barbourville, Kentucky Minor Lane Heights, Kentucky Richmond, Kentucky Bossier City, Louisiana Adamstown, Maryland Baltimore, Maryland Fallston, Maryland Roslindale, Massachusetts South Deerfield, Massachusetts Royal Oak, Michigan Yale, Michigan Clinton, Mississippi Marietta, Mississippi Piedmont, Missouri Rock Hill, Missouri Omaha, Nebraska , New York (2 reports) Medina, New York Red Hook, New York Chapel Hill, North Carolina Elizabeth City, North Carolina Greensboro, North Carolina Raleigh, North Carolina (2 reports) Cleveland, Ohio (2 reports) Coshocton, Ohio Evendale, Ohio Fort Jennings, Ohio Fruit Hill, Ohio Glouster, Ohio Grove City, Ohio Owen Sound, Ontario Dallas, Oregon Gold Hill, Oregon Portland, Oregon (4 reports) Salem, Oregon Springfield, Oregon (2 reports) Allentown, Pennsylvania East Norriton, Pennsylvania Emmaus, Pennsylvania Laflin, Pennsylvania Willow Street, Pennsylvania Irwin, South Carolina Laurens, South Carolina Clarksville, Tennessee Manchester, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee Austin, Texas Dallas, Texas (2 reports) Magna, Utah Arlington, Virginia Herndon, Virginia Leesburg, Virginia Locust Dale, Virginia Newport News, Virginia Bellevue, Washington Kalama, Washington Seattle, Washington Canvas, West Virginia