Photo by Melody

PlantFiles: Common Toadflax, Bread and Butter, Brideweed, Bridewort, Butter and Eggs
Linaria vulgaris

Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Linaria (lin-AR-ee-uh) (Info)
Species: vulgaris (vul-GAIR-iss) (Info)

One vendor has this plant for sale.

16 members have or want this plant for trade.


12-18 in. (30-45 cm)
18-24 in. (45-60 cm)
24-36 in. (60-90 cm)

12-15 in. (30-38 cm)

USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 C (-40 F)
USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 C (-35 F)
USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)
USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)
USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)
USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)
USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)
USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)
USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)
USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)
USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)
USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)
USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)
USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

Sun Exposure:
Full Sun

Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Bloom Color:
Pale Yellow
White/Near White

Bloom Time:
Mid Summer
Late Summer/Early Fall
Mid Fall


Other details:
May be a noxious weed or invasive
Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater
Self-sows freely; deadhead if you do not want volunteer seedlings next season

Soil pH requirements:
6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)
6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)
7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)

Patent Information:

Propagation Methods:
From softwood cuttings
From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall
From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse

Seed Collecting:
Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds

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There are a total of 16 photos.
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2 positives
2 neutrals
5 negatives

Gardeners' Notes:

Positive opiecrunch On Aug 10, 2014, opiecrunch wrote:

Was given a start of this beautiful little plant over 25 years ago by now. Needs to be well watered here in Kansas with our brutal summers.No invasive tendencies here in Kansas. Almost lost my start several times over the years with our droughts and heat.

Negative pookha On Aug 29, 2013, pookha from edmonton
Canada wrote:

Noxious weed designation in Alberta

Negative distantkin On Nov 3, 2007, distantkin from Saint Cloud, MN (Zone 4b) wrote:

MN DNR's website has this plant listed on the invasive list.
"Ecological Threat:
This plant has the ability to adapt to various site conditions, in Minnesota it grows on gravelly to sandy soil along roadsides, railroad yards, waste places, dry fields, pastures and croplands.
It competes well against less aggressive native plants in gravelly and sandy soils; its capability to spread also vegetatively is largely responsible for its invasive behavior.
It presents a problem in prairie reconstruction projects, once it has established itself.
This plant is a serious problem in Alberta and is on the state noxious weed list in New Mexico and Arizona.
This plant was introduced into North America as an ornamental from the steppes of Europe and Asia in the 1700s, and is still sold commercially. "

It grows everywhere here, so if you want some and it is not considered invasive where you are-let me know and I will go pull it from the cracks along the roads :o)

Negative Joan On Apr 1, 2007, Joan from Belfield, ND (Zone 4a) wrote:

This plant is listed on the North Dakota invasive/troublesome list and this information is being distributed in a guide developed by the ND Weed Control Association and other agencies.

Plant Features
Perennial, up to 2 feet tall
Numerous soft leaves are long, narrow, pale green and are attached directly to the stem
Bright yellow snapdragon-like flowers with a bright orange throat and long yellow spur
Blooms May through September
Spreads by creeping roots (rhizomotous, spreads laterally 10 feet per year), and seeds

Widespread invasive that grows under most conditions
Very aggressive, tolerates shade
Very difficult to eradicate

Interesting Facts
Gardeners call it butter-and-eggs
Flowers resemble Dalmatian toadflax
A single plant can produce up to a half-million seeds per year
May be mildly poisonous to livestock (contains glucoside) if ingested
Escaped ornamental, known to be planted in cemeteries

Negative JodyC On Feb 18, 2007, JodyC from Palmyra, IL (Zone 5b) wrote:

Toadflax is Very Dangerous to Livestock,if you have live stock and it can get into your pastures,it can kill your stock...I wanted to grow this but now I'm scared to because we have horses and it spreads to easy and is a weed to ranchers and livestock owners..:-(

Positive Kim_M On Nov 8, 2004, Kim_M from Hamburg, PA (Zone 6b) wrote:

Very Cheery and delightful plant

Negative nevrest On Oct 6, 2004, nevrest from Broadview, SK (Zone 3a) wrote:

It is considered a noxious weed here in Saskatchewan, the local R.M. spray it where ever it is spotted. Has been spread quite extensively by the snow-machines.
Beautiful flowers, such a cheery yellow but we find it so hard to get rid of or even control.

Neutral Baa On Aug 19, 2002, Baa wrote:

A perennial from Europe.

Has grey-green, linear or lance shaped, almost hairless leaves. Bears 2 lipped, pale yellow flowers with a dark gold spot on the lower lip, behind the flower is a conspicuous spur.

Flowers June-October

Loves moist but well-drained, soil in full sun but can tolerate a wide range of soils and situations. It can become invasive via it's creeping root system and self-sows quite easily.

The common name Toadflax derives from the time when Flax (Linum usitatissimum) was widely grown as a fibre crop. This Linaria would happily self sow within the Flax and grow virtually unnoticed until it flowered. It has no use at all for fibre making and could devalue the crop.

It was once considered a cure for jaundice under the Doctrine of Signatures but was also used as a diuretic. It's still sometimes used as a diuretic today by trained herbalists.

Other British country names for Toadflax are:
Weasel Snout
Lion's Mouth
Pig's Chops
Dragon Bushes
Fox and Hounds

Neutral gardener_mick On Mar 17, 2001, gardener_mick from Wentworth, SD (Zone 4a) wrote:

Well-drained, moist soil. Propogate by seed, self sows


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Huntsville, Alabama
Sitka, Alaska
Susanville, California
Chadwick, Illinois
Chicago, Illinois
Newton, Kansas
Barbourville, Kentucky
La Grange, Kentucky
London, Kentucky
Cumberland, Maryland
Oakland, Maryland
Lake, Michigan
Saint Helen, Michigan
Saint Cloud, Minnesota
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Young America, Minnesota
Dover, New Hampshire
Englishtown, New Jersey
Carmel, New York
Medina, Ohio
Mount Hood Parkdale, Oregon
Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania
Millersburg, Pennsylvania
Cookeville, Tennessee
Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Cedar Hill, Texas
Salt Lake City, Utah
Kalama, Washington
Pewaukee, Wisconsin
Porterfield, Wisconsin
Pulaski, Wisconsin

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