Photo by Melody

PlantFiles: Blue Toadflax, Old-field Toadflax, Canada Toadflax
Nuttallanthus canadensis

Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Nuttallanthus (nut-al-ANTH-us) (Info)
Species: canadensis (ka-na-DEN-sis) (Info)

Synonym:Linaria canadensis

4 members have or want this plant for trade.


6-12 in. (15-30 cm)
12-18 in. (30-45 cm)
18-24 in. (45-60 cm)

6-9 in. (15-22 cm)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)
USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)
USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)
USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)
USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)
USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)
USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)
USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)
USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

Sun Exposure:
Full Sun

Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Bloom Color:

Bloom Time:
Mid Spring
Late Spring/Early Summer
Mid Summer
Late Summer/Early Fall
Mid Fall


Other details:
May be a noxious weed or invasive
This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds
Drought-tolerant; suitable for xeriscaping
Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Soil pH requirements:
5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

Patent Information:

Propagation Methods:
By dividing the rootball
From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall
From seed; sow indoors before last frost
From seed; direct sow after last frost

Seed Collecting:
Bag seedheads to capture ripening seed
Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds

Click thumbnail
to view:

By bsarg
Thumbnail #1 of Nuttallanthus canadensis by bsarg

By Heavinscent
Thumbnail #2 of Nuttallanthus canadensis by Heavinscent

By 01_William
Thumbnail #3 of Nuttallanthus canadensis by 01_William

By 01_William
Thumbnail #4 of Nuttallanthus canadensis by 01_William


No positives
1 neutral
No negatives

Gardeners' Notes:

Neutral bsarg On Jul 13, 2003, bsarg from Worcester, MA (Zone 6a) wrote:

The tiny blue flowers of this plant have a 2-humped white palate and a long slender spur projecting underneath, in a slender raceme.The narrow leaves are linear and shining.It prefers dry sandy soil.It is a native plane and while lovely in the wild I do not think it showy enough to plant it in the garden.


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Lexa, Arkansas
Cornelia, Georgia
Monroe, Georgia
Lake Charles, Louisiana
Bridgewater, Massachusetts
Worcester, Massachusetts
Saint Helen, Michigan

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