Hardiness: USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 °C (-40 °F) USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 °C (-35 °F) USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 °C (-30 °F) USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 °C (-25 °F) USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 °C (-20 °F) USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 °C (-15 °F) USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 °C (-10 °F) USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 °C (-5 °F) USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 °C (0 °F) USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 °C (5 °F) USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 °C (10 °F) USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 °C (15 °F) USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 °C (20 °F) USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 °C (25 °F)
Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade Light Shade
Danger: Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested
Bloom Color: Dark Purple/Black
Bloom Time: Mid Spring Late Spring/Early Summer Mid Summer
Other details: This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater
Soil pH requirements: 6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic) 6.6 to 7.5 (neutral) 7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)
Patent Information: Non-patented
Propagation Methods: By dividing the rootball From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse From seed; stratify if sowing indoors Direct sow as soon as the ground can be worked From seed; sow indoors before last frost From seed; direct sow after last frost
Seed Collecting: Allow seedheads to dry on plants; remove and collect seeds Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored
On May 19, 2010, entzelb from Minneapolis, MN wrote:
Curious if anyone can give me some pointers. 3 weeks ago I planted some bare root stock of this plant. Before planting I soaked the roots in a warm bath and they sprouted in that few hrs. I also lightly dusted them with rooting hormone. I planted at the prescribed depth. a few are in shade, a few in sun. So far though, not a sign of anything and I'm wondering if I should give up or if there is still hope for them. MN has had a very warm and lovely spring so I figured they would be eager to show.
A beautiful selection with fully double, purplish black, spurless blossoms that resemble small dahlias. This variety was bred especially for cut flower production. It also works well in containers. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds.
Easily grown from seed. The small, dark double flowers are especially lovely with the pastels of spring blooming plants. Fertilome's Triple Action Plus sprayed a few times early in the season seems to have prevented marring of the foliage from leaf miners. Even when not in bloom, the foliage is very attractive.
This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:
Brea, California San Diego, California San Francisco, California Plainfield, Illinois Wilmette, Illinois Switz City, Indiana Benton, Kentucky Berea, Kentucky South China, Maine Ellicott City, Maryland Ocean Grove, Massachusetts Buffalo, New York Geneva, Ohio Highland Heights, Ohio Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Harbeck-fruitdale, Oregon Portland, Oregon Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania East Norriton, Pennsylvania Columbia, South Carolina Hendersonville, Tennessee South Salt Lake, Utah Kalama, Washington Seattle, Washington Owen, Wisconsin