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PlantFiles: Saltmarsh, Longleaf Ironwood, Swamp Oak
Casuarina glauca

Family: Casuarinaceae
Genus: Casuarina (kazh-yoo-ar-EYE-nuh) (Info)
Species: glauca (GLAW-kuh) (Info)


over 40 ft. (12 m)

Unknown - Tell us

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)
USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)
USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F)
USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F)
USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 C (40 F)

Sun Exposure:
Full Sun
Sun to Partial Shade

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Color:
Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:
Unknown - Tell us

Unknown - Tell us

Other details:
May be a noxious weed or invasive
This plant is fire-retardant

Soil pH requirements:
Unknown - Tell us

Patent Information:
Unknown - Tell us

Propagation Methods:
Unknown - Tell us

Seed Collecting:
Unknown - Tell us

Click thumbnail
to view:

By BROforest
Thumbnail #1 of Casuarina glauca by BROforest


No positives
1 neutral
3 negatives

Gardeners' Notes:

Negative melody On Jan 28, 2005, melody from Benton, KY (Zone 7a) wrote:

Also known as the Brazilian Beefwood. It has been introduced into tropical Florida, where, as stated above, it is becoming a dangerous pest.

It is distinguished by having 12 to 17 scale leaves per jointed whorl.

Negative NativePlantFan9 On Jan 19, 2005, NativePlantFan9 from Boca Raton, FL (Zone 10a) wrote:

Suckering Australian Pine, Longleaf Ironwood, Saltmarsh Ironwood, Grey Sheoak or Swamp Sheoak (Casuarina glauca) is highly invasive in many or all habitats throughout much of central and southern Florida and the Keys, from zone 9a south through zone 11. It is found in many counties. It is just as invasive as C. equestifolia (Australian Pine, Beefwood, or Horsetail Tree), which is also extremely invasive in central and southern Florida and the Keys (also zones 9a through 11). This spp. is a suckering, spreading spp. with longer needles than C. equestifolia, but this spp. often may hybridize with C. equestfolia, blending characteristics of both spp. This spp. is highly invasive in disturbed sites, coastal sites, open sunny sites, areas with high salt, beaches, mangrove swamps, saline or alkaline habitats such as sandy shorelines and flats and splits, ridges with alkaline and/or disturbed soils, and similar expanses of habitat in central and southern Florida. It is generally not as tall as C. equestifolia, even at it's adult stage. It is an aggressive invader and a quick spreader, forming dense stands of young and adult trees, spreading into natural habitats, crowding out native species. This spp. is rapidly spreading along the eastern Everglades in Palm Beach, Broward and Miami-Dade counties down into the Keys, being a threat to natural habitats in the Everglades. This tree generally grows up to 25 or 30 or maybe 35 or up to 40 feet tall. It is a threat to shorelines like C. equestifolia, and like it, it crowds out native plant and wildlife species. This tree is listed as a Category One Invasive by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council and should not be planted anywhere in central and southern Florida due to it's aggressive nature and quick spreading. Adult trees often form dense stands in agricultural, urban or rural sites, especially along highways and canal banks in central and southern Florida and the Keys. This spp. has spread as far north as Volusia and Brevard counties as well as inland neighboring counties on the east coast of Florida and as far north as Pasco County and the Tampa Bay Area (Hillsborough, Pinellas, and Manatee and Sarasota counties) on the west coast of Florida. It is especially invasive on Cape Canaveral on the east coast of Florida in Brevard County, where it has expanded it's range. In central and southern Florida, it is now found in about 22 counties, including:
Palm Beach
St. Lucie
Indian River
De Soto
The Keys (Monroe)

This plant is also invasive in Hawaii and the surrounding islands where it is spreading and is a large threat and is on the Hawaiian Pest Plant List. Biological control there is being assessed, but has not yet got around. Also, they have not yet found a pest specific to this spp. to be suitable for biological control there. The other spp. which is invasive in Florida, C. equestifolia, is also listed as a big pest for Hawaii and is also on the Hawaiian Pest Plant List.

This plant SHOULD NOT BE PLANTED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA! It is invasive and spreads very quickly in the landscape, crowding out native species!

This species is "the other Australian Pine" commonly seen in central and southern Florida. It is the common inland windbreak species (C. equestifolia is the more coastal windbreak species). This spp. grows in the same habitats in central and southern Florida and often alongside C. equestifolia. This spp. (C. glauca) is distinguished from C. equestifolia in central and southern Florida by it's longer, more drooping needles than C. equestifolia. This spp. is also has smoother, light gray (not reddish or rusty-brown like C. equestifolia) bark than C. equestifolia... hence the name of this spp., 'Grey Sheoak'. This spp. also has a shorter hight than C. equestifolia, generally reaching only 30 or 40 feet high, while C. equestifolia commonly is 60 or near 70 or even 100 feet high. This species often forms stands of this invasive suckering species in interior and coastal central and southern Florida, along the Gold and Treasure Coasts of Florida and along I-95 and the Florida Turnpike, in eastern, central, and southeastern Florida.

NOTE - In Florida, all species of Casuarina (C. glauca {this spp.}, C. equestifolia and C. cunninghamiana) are prohibited to plant. The third species - C. cunninghamiana - is starting to display invasive characteristics in central and southern Florida like C. glauca and C. equestifolia. C. cunninghamiana is now listed as a FLEPPC Category Two Invasive, while C. glauca and C. equestifolia are FLEPPC Category One Invasives.

Negative BROforest On Jan 18, 2005, BROforest from Brownsville, TX (Zone 9b) wrote:

THIS DESCRIPTION refers to my Photo which is a Casuarina glauca-this and equisetifolia ( Australian Pine) are EQUALLY INVASIVE and to be avoided. Glauca has longer needles(branch scales). Since moving to the 'tropical tip of Texas' I've had these weeds growing at my house in Laguna Vista. I cannot find many plants that will tolerate growing beneath them and am constantly chopping them out of my lawn. They also seem to send out very fine hair-like dark brown rootlets that extend out at least 25' and seem to strangle any plant that these rootlets grow around. The plant actually seems to die of thirst and extreme watering seems to make the rootlets even thicker. Bougainvillea, Hibiscus, Ixora, Pinus Spp., Boxwood, various Ivys... don't grow but some Aloes, Agaves and an old sour orange tree survive beneath them. I chopped one group off at 6' and it actually makes a passibly good evergreen hedge which of course, Johnson grass still likes. I would recommend severly limiting the spread of the sprouts if you insist on planting for windbreaks

Neutral punaheledp On Jul 8, 2004, punaheledp from Kailua, HI (Zone 11) wrote:

in Hawaii it is on the pest plant list. very similar to c.equisefolia


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Boca Raton, Florida
Brownsville, Texas

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