Saturday, November 28, 2009
OLD LILY HYBRIDS AND SPECIES//ssls.tussana.com/OLD%20LILY%20HYBRIDS%20AND%20SPECIES1.html
OLD LILY HYBRIDS AND SPECIES
A look at Asiatic lilies of the past 3 centuries. Are they still here?
Researched and Written by Brian Porter
There are two or three main groups of upright facing Asiatic lilies that might be found growing in Saskatchewan gardens today. They are often erroneously called Tiger Lilies by the uninformed, but in fact they bear very little resemblance to that downfacing Chinese import. These old lilies, while no match for today's modern hybrids, are part of our lily heritage. Unfortunately, over the years, the cultivar names, if they ever had any, have been lost or ignored, and even when they were relatively new, the names were sometimes confused. Over the years some cultivars have been reassigned to different groups. My apologies if you find the cultivar lists excessive - this article was composed over a period of several years and the list became much longer than I first anticipated, but as this information is hard to come by, I've included as much as I could find.
Lilium X hollandicum Bergmans ex Woodcock & Stearn - HOLLANDICUM HYBRIDS (Lilium X umbellatum Hort. not Pursh)
Lilies in this group have for years been sold as L. umbellatum, although there is no one species or hybrid legitimately named as such. (The botanist Pursh used that name for our own provincial flower emblem, although it is not accepted today). The current name, assigned in 1950, refers to a series of cultivars of hybrid origin, with upright blooms in shades of brilliant red, orange-red and yellow. Almost all of them make excellent garden subjects, are easily grown and established, and all bloom early. Practically all the older clones are infected with mosaic. Some of these have been grown in Saskatchewan since the early days and perhaps some of them (virus tolerant) are still happily growing in our gardens, but without labels. Hollandicum hybrids were valued for breeding work by Dr. F.L. Skinner, Dropmore MB, who introduced such hybrids as Skinner's Orange (1932), Scottiae (1956), Dunkirk and Lemon Lady (1951). DeGraaff of Oregon used it to develop the hybrid Umtig (an unintroduced cross with the tiger Iily), which was the first step in the development of his Mid Century Hybrids, which became world famous. Dr. A.J. Porter first listed "Hollandicum" in his 1953 catalogue, but this type was grown by other nurseries in Saskatchewan in the 1920's and was recommended by 1930.
These lilies are thought to have been derived from the European L. bulbiferum (or its variety croceum) and L. X maculatum hybrids (also called L. elegans) of Japanese origin. Earl Hornback, of Oregon Bulb Farms, gave credit to an English nurseryman, Henry Groom for developing a number of these between 1840 and 1853. Presumably a large number were also developed in Holland or Belgium, or at least widely propagated there, and later a few were developed in the USA. They were perhaps the most popular upright hybrid Asiatics until the development of the mid-century Hybrids in Oregon a century later.
Apricot (Zaadnoordijk, c1926) - clear apricot yellow, cup shaped, and height 16".
Atlas (Groom, c1848) -deep brown, dwarf. Not to be confused with the modem 'Atlas', which is yellow, and registered under the name of 'Hermes'.
Chief Chinook (Searles-Kline, 1937) - apricot, shading to capsicum red at tips. This is an Oregon origination.
Cloth of Gold - Nankeen yellow (orange-yellow), almost unspotted. Origin unknown, but known to the Royal Horticultural Society by 1901. Thought to be a hollandicum x maculatum.
Darkest of All (unknown origin) - upfacing, other details unknown. Was listed in a Kline, 1938 catalogue (Oregon).
Don Juan (unknown origin) - Salmon rose shading to orange scarlet, spotted. Height about 24". Listed in a British catalogue in 1877.
Dr. George Clark (Vasseur, 1946) - golden apricot, dwarf, growing to 18', dark foliage. This breeder lived in Massachusetts, but his lilies were first introduced in Vermont.
Duke of Sutherland (unknown origin) - orange-red, shading bright yellow, 24". Known by 1875.
Duke of Wellington (unknown origin) - crimson, shading to bright yellow, 24". Known by 1875.
Erectum - glossy, bright red, suffused with orange, well spotted. Petals wavy, Height 2-3'. Illustrated in "Garden Lilies", Alan & Esther MacNeil, Oxford University Press, New York, 1946. Introduced by the Dutch firm, J.H. Krelage by 1901/1902. This was sold on the prairies by Steele Briggs in 1929 and likely other years as well. May have been in commerce as late as 1964. Current checklists anglicize it to 'Erect'. This Lily was used in the breeding of 'Apricot Beauty' (1964) in Holland.
Golden Fleece - orange-yellow blooms, shaded apricot, tipped with scarlet and speckled crimson. Very early bloomer. Height 2.5', but some have said the constitution was not overly strong. Originated in Holland about 1924. Sold by Cruickshank's as recently as 1965.
Grandiflorum - orange-red blooms are shaded with deeper red at the tips of the petals. According to A. & E. MacNeil, it is the most commonly sold cultivar and has been popularly called the Torch Lily, the Flame Lily and the Candlestick Lily. Grown at the Experimental Farm, Indian Head, in 1891. It was still listed in some garden encyclopedias in the 1960's. Height about 2'. Its originator is unknown.
Invincible - deep orange, tips reddish, petals broad. Known by 1928, it may have persisted into the 1960's. One author described it as a greatly improved 'Incomparable', deeper red, with larger flowers and more refined. Another described the flowers as "massive". Introduced by the Dutch firm of K. Zaadnoordijk.
Multiflorum - orange-yellow, shaded red-orange, strong grower, 2-3'. Description from 1929 Steele Briggs Catalogue. Sold in England by Baff & Sugden, 1877.
Moonlight - clear warm yellow, with only a few spots. In a shady location, the petals are tipped with scarlet when they first open, but this color fades in a day or two. 2-2.5'. A relatively new seedling by Louis Vasseur, introduced in 1943 in Vermont. Late blooming for this type. 'Apricot' hollandicum x 'Aurantiacum', a maculatum selection.
Orange Brilliant (Zaadnoordijk, by 1934) - brilliant orange, shading to crimson.
Orange King (Zaadnoordijk, by 1938) - rich deep orange, with red tips, lightly spotted brown, and with slightly wavy petals. May have been in commerce as late as 1964. Not a pure hollandicum, as it has genes from L. davidii willmottiae.
Orange Triumph (Rijnstroom, 1933) - flowers vivid orange, with faint maroon spots, 10- 12 per cluster, growing to 3'. Supposedly in our RCMP garden, but I am not certain the bulbs are authentic, and may have been misnamed at Indian Head, from where they were transplanted.
Prince of Wales - pure orange-yellow, with a few spots in the throat. It is dwarf and distinct, free bloomer. Introduced by Zaadnoordijk, by 1931.
Refulgence - rich golden orange crimson. Listed in the Constable catalogue (U.K.), 1937.
Sappho - soft-orange petals, flushed with red, are crimson at the tips, spotted purple-black, somewhat dwarf. This cultivar was used in a cross with the tiger Lily to develop 'Unitig 8'. The latter was not introduced, but was used in later breeding, which led to the development of the Mid Century Hybrids. Some authors have listed this as a Lilium dauricum selection. It was introduced by 1877, and was still around in 1933.
Sensation - vivid orange-red. An old hollandicum x maculatum cross, known by 1902.
Splendidum - glowing vermilion, orange-shaded, nearly unspotted, petal tips reflexed. Height 2.5'. Late flowering and liking partial shade. Introduced by Zaadnoordijk around 1923 when it won an Award of Merit at Haarlem. RHS checklist lists it as 'Splendid'.
Thalia - narrow-petalled blooms, copper-orange and brown spotted. Introduced by Zaadnoordijk, by 1934.
Tottenhamii - pure yellow, spotted red. Listed in the Wallace (U.K.) catalogue of 1900. Thought to be a hollandicum x maculatum cross.
Vermilion Brilliant - brilliant crimson blood red, interior slightly spotted black, 16", and very free flowering. Introduced by Zaadnoordijk in 1927. Sold by Cruickshank in 1962. Has also been listed in the past as a L. dauricum cultivar. Feu Brilliant may be identical. Violet Niles Walker (Vasseur, 1946) - khaki-orange (persimmon orange), dwarf, 12", long lasting flowers. The parentage of L. elegans alutaceum x Alice Wilson suggests it belongs in the Maculatum group.
William Craig - clear, unspotted golden orange, star-shaped, not cupped, with recurved tips, early, 30", with a flexible stem. A newer seedling by Louis Vasseur, introduced 1944. Parentage was 'Apricot' x 'Orange King'. Grown by Percy Wright in the 1940's.
Mrs. Bateman's Unknown - Photo by Brian Porter
Last Revised September 21, 2008
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