219 genes make the difference

szarvas, Hungary

Indeed only 219 genes are necessary to give all the mutations of Ipomoea Nil.
They act alone or as group.

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

In Japan , at the end of period NARA ( 710 - 770 ) arrive from China 4 or 5 vines which are effective drugs - seeds powder is laxative and diuretic.

These plants will be crossed to give Morning Glory Japonica or ASAGAO.

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

At that time China was " the World " , was a maritime power and had contact with civilizations of Indus, Persians and Arabs who visited already Africa.

China influenced Japan in many ways, one which was the custom of enjoying flowers.

Heian period ( 794 - 1185 ) Heiankyo as capital ( now Kyoto ).
Poems would be written praising the delicate flowers, which were seen as a metaphor for live it self, luminous and beautiful yet fleeting and ephemeral.
Towards year 1000 it was only an handful of cultivars. Seeds of the new colors cost a fortune. (the translator translates :seeds were worth a head of cow - in the butcher or alive at the breeder place ? , it's not same thing LOL) .Colors White, Red, Purple and Wali? (Brown ?) was the choice. Size of the flowers was close to the wild varieties.

Serie Heian (H. Era gold Hama - H. No Yuki - H. No Uzmi etc…. ) are modern varieties in remembering this period. They are in fact, cultivars with large flowers.

North of Atlanta, GA(Zone 8a)

http://davesgarden.com/community/forums/fp.php?pid=7511758
they are beautiful!

(Becky) in Sebastian, FL(Zone 10a)

Hmmm ... interesing photos and charts, Dany. 219 different genes for all those varieties to show up! I love I. nils for that reason. I really do think environmental affects them just as much as genetic. That is my assumption from what MGs I've grown in just a few short years. This past year was really interesting with Diluted Fuji no Muraski. That was a prime example of environment and genes.

I wished I worked with some of the Japanese professors to learn more. It IS truly fascinating work that they do!

I am very delighted that I can do my own little experiments at my own home and come up with some pretty interesting vines and blooms. Thanks and keep sharing all this interesting information with us. I am enjoying it! :-)

Wilmington, DE(Zone 7a)

I like your thread here, Dany. It is quite interesting.



(Debra) Derby, KS(Zone 6a)

Dany, thos ones with the double Peony look are awsome. I also love those willowy ones. Morning Glories have a wonderful history. Thanks!

szarvas, Hungary

1603 - 1868 EDO period the golden age of Mornining Glory.
1721 - 1829 a clan of Samurai called Higo developed the MG for 8 générations.They lived in the area of the city Kumamoto on the island of Kyushu.

21 different colors.
At that time more than 100 cultivars , the flowers spend from 5 petaloids to 6.
The generality of flowers have a white throat, with a diameter of 4 inches.
A good number of those MG can boast of having relatives with a Higo cultivar .
http://mg.biology.kyushu-u.ac.jp/mg-files/strainlist/strainlist-old/105-238/index.htm

Originally the leaf was green .

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

At the end of World War II Series Higo Bosh had almost disappeared.
A committee has been set and now 42 pure cultivars hqve been found.
Every year from July to August an exhibition of the collection Higo Bosh is presented at Kumamoto Castle.
http://www5b.biglobe.ne.jp/~joma/040905higoasagao.htm

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

As you can see the plants are presented at the exhibition in a manner very strict.
In a pot 5 inches tall (Amakusi pottery preferably) all can't measure more than 16 inches .A single flower is recognized, therefore requires a certain pruning.

http://flower-k.at.webry.info/200608/article_25.html

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

This period is also known for the development of other plants.
There is the Camellia Higo, Chrysanthenum Higo, Iris Higo and peony Higo.

http://www13.plala.or.jp/fuku3/rokka.html

Thumbnail by dany12
(Becky) in Sebastian, FL(Zone 10a)

Dany - Very interesting history lesson! I don't feel so bad now during winter when I grow my vines in 5-6" pots! But doesn't seem that they grow those on display to harvest seeds from?

szarvas, Hungary

After exhibition they say that plants will be transplanted to the garden.

Thumbnail by dany12
(Becky) in Sebastian, FL(Zone 10a)

Oh ... that's a relief! I would imagine that they get a rare vine/bloom and it would be a shame for the plant to never get large enough to produce seeds. :-) Really lovely! Would sure be a dream to do a group trip to Japan during one of these exhibitions! ;-)

(Debra) Derby, KS(Zone 6a)

I noticed they have rock gravel in their pots.. I am glad to see that. I have been adding rock gravel to the top of my pots since the few I did last year seemed to thrive better than the others. Thanks for sharing this information, it is really interesting and gave me some ideas. ;)

(Becky) in Sebastian, FL(Zone 10a)

I wonder why the rock helps the vines? Keeps weeds out? Keeps the top of the soil cooler? Interesting observation...

szarvas, Hungary

In total there were 3 booms mutation.
Two in the Edo period ( 1603 - 1868 ) and one after this period.

First boom: 1804 - 1829 period = Bunsei
Second boom: 1841 - 1859
Third boom: 1868 - 1902 period = MEII

The changes have taken place at all levels:
Leaves :colors, sizes, shapes.

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

Seeds : colours, sizes, forms.
Flowers : colours, sizes, forms.
The volum of plants change also.

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

Today we know that the culprits are TRANSPOSONS .

But the causes of the " fiesta " is still unknown.
Traces of mutants of yesterday are the drawings and croquits which are visible in the museum.

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

The Japanese are trying to recreate all cultivars disappeared.
But there are two " ghosts cultivars " which remain inaccessible.

The famous YELLOW

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

And a real BLACK flower vine. (Black King looks brown)
I think we can trust in the quality "scientific" of those drawings.
Patterns of 18 th century are the pictures of today.

Black velvet.

Thumbnail by dany12
North of Atlanta, GA(Zone 8a)

wow, impressive.

(Becky) in Sebastian, FL(Zone 10a)

Dany - Very interesting info that you have posted! Amazing how the mutations have taken place over the years.

Just curious ... where did the photo of the bright YELLOW MG come from? It looks like a current photo.

Black Velvet is amazing! I wonder if it really was THAT dark? Beautiful! If we only knew the combinations they crossed to get those two colors! I am sure the Japanese or someone will come up with the right crosses to get them once again! :-)

Thanks for educating us! A very interesting topic!

Wilmington, DE(Zone 7a)

The green in the leaf looks a bit off color, maybe the yellow in the flower was software-photo-enhanced? I have only seen that kind of black in hollyhock and tulip flowers. Someday we will see that black flower again in the JMGs.

(Debra) Derby, KS(Zone 6a)

I find this a very interesting thread.. it makes me want to experiment LOL..
I would love to see a yellow or a black morning glory. I like the way those drawings show the different leaf formations.Leaf shapes intrique me.

szarvas, Hungary

All mutations observed are due to wild crossing most especially to the action of TRANSPOSONS.
Barbara McClintock - Nobel prize in 1983 discovered transposons.
About 50% of the total genome of maize concists of transposons.

Transposon = jumping genes.
mobile genetic elements vector of mutations .
"Junk DNA"

They can be inserted at another position in the genome - technic of "Cut and Paste"
The process can cause mutations.

Since excessive transposon activity can destroy a genome , many organisms seen to have developed mechanisms to reduce transposition to a manageable level .

Thumbnail by dany12
(Debra) Derby, KS(Zone 6a)

Okay Dany.. I want the spidery looking white one plz.... will you send that to me right away? ( I love this picture you posted)

North of Atlanta, GA(Zone 8a)

yeah, me too, the white one? and the soft pink shredded one too. LOL!

szarvas, Hungary

Debra , Nicole LOL LOL

Nothing is impossible!

Either you're part of a club or association which animate the great exhibitions of MG in summer in Japan.
Or (much easier) you know someone in Japan who can do a query for you in May at the University of Kyushu for 3 cultivars to choose from the list.

Here is Q 0416 - Beautiful but difficult to reproduce if it did not have the necessary tools (stamens and pistil)

Thumbnail by dany12
(Debra) Derby, KS(Zone 6a)

that is so beautiful..

North of Atlanta, GA(Zone 8a)

ok i have a friend in japan. I will have to ask her where she is at in japan, may be Tsukiji? I don't think she will get in line for me to get some seeds....

North of Atlanta, GA(Zone 8a)

Dany, can i use your picture above to show her what Morning Glories are?

(Becky) in Sebastian, FL(Zone 10a)

Dany - This photo: http://davesgarden.com/community/forums/fp.php?pid=7596901 is awesome! What gorgeous cultivars that the Japanese have created! I wish I was a fly on the wall at the university to see what they do to get these unusual vines and blooms! It pays to know people in the right place at the right time! ;-)

So does the "Junk DNA" produce the most unusual blooms?

szarvas, Hungary

Nicole the answer is YES.

In summary this pdf ( impossible to translate ).But the drawing speak !
The work of the transposon is during a self-fecondation.
The external agent is radiation ( X or space ray ) , ionization .
Jumping gene be inserted in the genome of the new generation .( seeds )

A new cultivar is born ! STABLE until the end of the world . LOL

http://edu.jaxa.jp/seeds/pdf/9_variation_asagao.pdf

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

The last step is to compare the genomes.
A standard MG genome and the genome of the new mutant. Locating the jumping gene ( transposon ) it is like a flag designating the mutated gene - just give it a name.

Since 1900 the Japanese are mapping the genomes of different mutations.

Sometimes only one gene causes multiple mutations and sometimes several genes must be present to create a mutant.
Like this one who existe in several colours.

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

Must be present 3 genes:
1 - cp gene = reverse tube gene.
2 - m gene = tatta gene has maple leaf.
3 - dp gene = gene peony.

WOW life is beautiful! LOL

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

I guess they use as a reference genome (standard) the number 1 of the collection KU (0007) which is a very stable variety . Seeds have been sent 9 months in space for an experiment in 2010 .
The collection Higo Bosch is regarded as pure varieties too.

Thumbnail by dany12
East Bridgewater, MA


Wow !!!

I don't really understand the science, but that dp gene ("peony" gene) photo is STUNNING !!!

szarvas, Hungary

Me neither!
I took my information on Japanese sites that I translated by Google. The translations are horrible and I have to read tons of sites for a few truths. I started and I'll finish.
MG are sometimes bizarre.

Thumbnail by dany12
szarvas, Hungary

What 's the difference between this flower usually called "bloom with flags"

Thumbnail by dany12

Post a Reply to this Thread

You cannot post until you , sign up and subscribe. to post.
BACK TO TOP