(Editor's Note: This article was originally published on October 11, 2011. Your comments are welcome, but please be aware that authors of previously published articles may not be able to promptly respond to new questions or comments.)

The name October comes from the Latin “octo,” since it was originally the eighth month. Even though later additions to the Roman calendar made October the tenth month, the name stuck. People in northern European countries called October “Wynmoneth” or wine month, since it was the time to gather grapes for wine-making. To the Anglo-Saxons, October was “Winterfylleth,” since winter was supposed to ensue at the appearance of this month’s full moon.

The October Garden
With warm days, cool nights and no annoying insects to contend with, October can be a delightful month to work in the garden. Even though you may have already accomplished any necessary plant division last month, there is still plenty to do. October is time to plant spring-blooming bulbs, dig up tender bulbs, bring vacationing houseplants indoors and clean and put away any garden ornaments. Be sure to continue providing an adequate amount of moisture to evergreens and broadleaf evergreens like boxwood and holly to help them better withstand winter weather.

Chrysanthemum x morifolium 'Golden Spotlight'Symphyotrichum novi-belgii 'Puff White'
Anemone 'Pamina' Viola 'Atlas Blueberry Mix'

October garden stars include chrysanthemums, asters and fall anemones. Cool season annuals like pansies, snapdragons and ornamental kale take center stage. Certain ornamental grasses such as 'Karl Forester' feather reed grass and ‘Autumn Light’ miscanthus come into their full glory in the fall.

Antirrhinum majus 'Playful Magenta' Brassica oleracea var. acephala 'Osaka Red'
Calamagrostis acutiflora 'Karl Forester'
Miscanthus sinensis 'Autumn Light'

ImageApple Month
October is Apple Month, according to the U.S. Apple Association. Everyone knows the expression, “as American as apple pie.” But how did America come to be associated with apple pie, especially since the Europeans were responsible for bringing apples to America in the first place? Long popular with the English, apple pies were a common item on the colonial menu, and came to be regarded as a quintessentially American creation. When asked why they were heading to battle, World War II soldiers often responded, “For mom and apple pie.”

Leif Ericson Day -- October 9Image
Leif Ericson Day recognizes the Norse explorer who is regarded as the first European to visit North America outside of Greenland, some 500 years before the sea voyages of Christopher Columbus. The date of October 9 was chosen not for any connection to Leif Ericson’s life, but rather because this was the date in 1825 when the ship “Restauration” arrived in New York Harbor from Stavanger, Norway, prompting organized immigration to the U.S. from Scandinavia.

ImageCanadian Thanksgiving -- Second Monday in October
Canada’s Thanksgiving holiday is celebrated on the second Monday in October. That may seem odd to Americans, but technically Canada can claim to have had the first harvest celebration by Europeans in North America. It occurred in 1578 -- 43 years before the Pilgrims set foot on Plymouth Rock -- when English explorer Martin Frobisher arrived in Newfoundland and gave thanks for his safe landing. In the several hundred years that followed, Canada, whose season of harvest occurs earlier than in most of the U.S., observed the holiday in either late October or early November. In 1957, Canada’s parliament declared the second Monday in October to be a day of general thanksgiving.

ImageColumbus Day -- Second Monday in October
Columbus Day was declared a federal holiday in 1937 as a commemoration of the “discovery” of the New World by Italian-born explorer Christopher Columbus, who, under the auspices of the Spanish crown, arrived in the Americas on October 12, 1492. The holiday eventually became fixed on the second Monday in October. The observance has become controversial for a number of reasons, but particularly because of the effect of Columbus’ arrival on indigenous peoples who had long inhabited the region. Alternative celebrations for such groups as Native Americans and Italian-Americans have come to replace Columbus Day in some parts of the U.S.

ImageHalloween -- October 31
We’ve been calling the last day of the month “Halloween” for so long that it’s easy to forget that the holiday’s name is actually an abbreviated form of All Hallows’ Eve, or the night before All Saints’ Day. The holiday derives from Samhain, an ancient Celtic summer’s end festival and a time when the spirits of the dead were believed to return to earth. As pagan festivals were incorporated into Christianity, Samhain became tied to All Hallows’ or All Saints’ Day, a Christian observance of the lives of saints and martyrs on November 1st. In the U.S., Halloween has developed over the years into a distinctly American celebration, where traditions such as trick-or-treating are as popular as ever.

October Symbols
In the language of gems, October’s birthstone, the opal, stands for hope. The name derives from the Latin “opalus” or precious jewel. The opal has an internal structure different from any other stone, giving it a milky white base with a rainbow-like play of color. Opals are more delicate than stones like diamonds, sapphires and rubies, and must be cut and handled carefully. One superstition holds than an opal is unlucky unless the wearer is born in October.
The birth flower for the month of October, the yellow or orange calendula, received its name from the Latin “kalendae” or first day of the month, a reference to its long-lasting flowers. Calendulas were actually the original marigolds, but today the name is more commonly used to refer to the unrelated but similar in color members of the Tagetes family. Marigold was a shortened form of “Mary’s gold,” so named because the plant was associated with the Virgin Mary.

U.S. Apple Association
Read & Think English
Timeanddate.com: Leif Ericson Day in the U.S.
Smithsonian: Thanksgiving in North America

Image credits:
Scarecrow and mums by nataliemaynor
Apple crate label by scout901 in the public domain
Leif Ericson stamp from Wikimedia Commons in the public domain
Columbus from Wikimedia Commons in the public domain
Thanksgiving and Halloween postcards from Vintage Holiday Crafts in the public domain
Opal by Opals-On-Black.com
Calendula by howzey

Thank you to DG photographers:
Chrysanthemum by dicentra63
Aster by TuttiFrutti
Anemone by kniphofia
Pansy by kniphofia
Snapdragon by Equilibrium
Flowering kale by Weezingreens
Calamagrostis by LilyLover_UT
Miscanthus by mgarr