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Ipomoea Species, Morning Glory, Chinese Water Spinach, Swamp Cabbage, Swamp Morning Glory, Kang Kong

Ipomoea aquatica

Family: Convolvulaceae (kon-volv-yoo-LAY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Ipomoea (ip-oh-MEE-a) (Info)
Species: aquatica (a-KWA-tee-kuh) (Info)
Synonym:Ipomoea natans
Synonym:Ipomoea repens
Synonym:Ipomoea reptans
Synonym:Ipomoea sagittifolia
Synonym:Ipomoea subdentata


Ponds and Aquatics

Water Requirements:

Very high moisture needs; suitable for bogs and water gardens

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun


Unknown - Tell us

Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us


8-10 ft. (2.4-3 m)


6-8 ft. (1.8-2.4 m)


USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F)

USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 C (40 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us



Bloom Color:



White/Near White

Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Blooms repeatedly

Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

Unknown - Tell us

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

From herbaceous stem cuttings

From seed; sow indoors before last frost

From seed; direct sow after last frost

From seed; germinate in a damp paper towel

From seed; germinate in vitro in gelatin, agar or other medium

Seed Collecting:

Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds

Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Birmingham, Alabama

Carmel, California

Lakeland, Florida

Pukalani, Hawaii

Marrero, Louisiana

Neskowin, Oregon

Scio, Oregon

Westmoreland, Tennessee

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Nov 7, 2017, RKrueg from Neskowin, OR wrote:

Hi All~ I thought I would provide my 2-cents. I am feeling pretty good about growing Kang Kong (Ipomoea aquatica) on my 1/4 acre duck pond based on a recent 2003 risk assessment for Oregon (see below for details). I have recently purchased this plant for some floating pond gardens I am planning to build this spring. I live in zone 8b (Neskowin, OR in Tillamook County). We have very mild winters and fairly warm summers and are sited about 1 mile from the ocean on south facing land. We have a 1/4 duck pond and am planning on building a plant raft that will keep the plants for leaving their space yet allow frequent, easy harvest of leaves for salads and other food. We also have a small CSA so may include this plant in the CSA baskets for customers

From what I have read Kang... read more


On Feb 2, 2016, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:

US Federal law prohibits the importation or transportation of this species (both interstate and intrastate). It has been reported in the wild in 4 states and PR.

What ByndeweedBeth says below is wrong: there are established populations in temperate climates, including Washington. aquatica.png

In addition, 10 states have banned or prohibited its cultivation.


On Jan 10, 2016, Ted_B from Birmingham, AL (Zone 8a) wrote:

This interesting, edible plant is easy to grow from cuttings or seed, and thrives in warm, wet environments. Wherever bog conditions are unavailable, it makes for a low maintenance (sealed) container plant, where it can be grown as a trailing vine. Cultivated this way, it produces edible greens all season long, and produces attractive flowers along the way. When the first frost approaches, simply take it inside, place in a bright window, and keep it watered. Handled this way, it overwinters without complaint.

Like kudzu, it is a fast growing, edible noxious weed, although unlike kudzu, this one is frost tender and shouldn't be problematic north of the subtropics.


On Mar 24, 2011, maccionoadha from Halifax, MA (Zone 6a) wrote:

This plant is listed on the USDA website as invasive or noxious. Florida State-listed Invasive and Noxious Weeds.

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. ~ Water Spinach (PAP1 ~ Prohibited aquatic plant, Class 1)


On Dec 17, 2009, mochimo from MIddle Blue,
Indonesia wrote:

In Indonesia, they are called Kangkung. They were a cheap, easy growing, delicious fast crops. They have lots of nutrition within. We all like it.

I think there was some varieties in the genus. As long as I remember, there is two kind of I.aquatica, the first one is called Kangkung darat and kangkung air . The first one, especially grows by seeds, because they produce more seeds, and they grows on the soil which is not damp. This variety doesnt like to be damp, because the root will soon rot if they got too much water.

The second are they one which grows especially in mud or damp soil. The one which is commonly found in swamps, river or lake edges etc. The flower are white, while the first one got red or yellow shade on the flower. The leaf is also di... read more


On Mar 1, 2008, wrightie from Metro DC, MD (Zone 7a) wrote:

I fell in love with this plant while living in Taiwan. It is utterly delicious when stir fried in some oil with fresh garlic and a pinch of salt. It is known to me as kong syin tsai in Mandarin Chinese (literal translation = hollow heart vegetable).

I really want to grow this plant, provided that I can control it. Am looking for seeds...


On Nov 11, 2007, garg from Alor Setar,
Malaysia wrote:

What? A weed?? In Malaysia, it's a food crop! It's called Water Convulvulus (or 'kangkong' in Malay). It's commonly stir-fried, or can be dipped in batter and deep fried. Only the youngest leaves and stems are eaten. If your plant has flowered, that's way too old - it would be too stringy.

Water Convulvulus grows wild by the side of ditches and in swampy/waterlogged areas. It likes to grow at water's edge and sometimes even grows out into the water. It's a favourite food of tortoises. Cultivating this at home is easy as it's a vigorous grower.


On Sep 27, 2007, ByndeweedBeth from scio, oregon, OR (Zone 8a) wrote:

Easily grown in a water tub or a small pond as an interesting edible plant. Not invasive in areas that freeze because you will get 100% mortality at first frost and must carefully restock to enjoy this plant the following year.


On Dec 19, 2006, frostweed from Josephine, Arlington, TX (Zone 8a) wrote:

Chinese Water Spinach, Swamp Cabbage, Swamp Morning Glory Ipomoea aquatica is naturalized in Texas and other States is considered an invasive noxious plant and is prohibited in Texas.


On Dec 10, 2004, rickexner from Ames, IA wrote:

There are several subtypes under Ipomoea aquatica. Most are noxious weeds. However, the "alba," or white-stemmed group includes a prized cooking green from Southeast Asia. My Thai friend calls it "phakbung." You will see it sold in bundles in Asian food stores. The leaves resemble morning glory, of course, and the stems are rather stiff and hollow, like spinach getting ready to bolt. However, phakbung cooks down easily. I compare it to spinach in consistency and taste. My Thai friend will tolerate spinach when phakbung is unavailable. But in the warm months of summer, this green might be a surer bet than spinach. I really would like to get some seeds!


On Sep 16, 2002, PPQOfficer1 wrote:

The USDA classifies this plant as a Federal Noxious Weed. Importation into the U.S. is prohibited without a permit. It is a prohibited aquatic plant in the state of Florida, and a prohibited noxious weed in the state of Arizona.

As a Plant Protection and Quarantine Officer with the USDA, I do not recommend the distribution, planting, buying nor growing of Ipomoea aquatica.


On Aug 23, 2001, Terry from Murfreesboro, TN (Zone 7a) wrote:

Water spinach leaves are almost arrowhead-shaped, one to six inches long, and one to three inches wide.

This annual vine grows best in constant wet soil or as an emersed freshwater plant. Water spinach leaves are almost arrowhead-shaped, one to six inches long, and one to three inches wide. The leaves have notched bases, with rounded or pointed lobes. The flowers are 2" across.

The leaf and stem are used in Oriental cooking; when boiled or fried, the taste is similar to spinach, hence the common name.