Senna Species, Christmas Senna, Money Bush, Rambling Senna, Winter Cassia, Yellow Candle Wood

Senna bicapsularis

Family: Fabaceae (fab-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Senna (SEN-nuh) (Info)
Species: bicapsularis (by-kap-soo-LAIR-iss) (Info)
Synonym:Cassia bicapsularis



Water Requirements:

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun



Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us


10-12 ft. (3-3.6 m)


4-6 ft. (1.2-1.8 m)


USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F)

USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 C (40 F)

Where to Grow:

Grow outdoors year-round in hardiness zone


Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Color:

Bright Yellow

Bloom Characteristics:

This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Late Fall/Early Winter

Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

Self-sows freely; deadhead if you do not want volunteer seedlings next season

Seed Collecting:

Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Mobile, Alabama

Montgomery, Alabama

Vincent, Alabama

Scottsdale, Arizona(2 reports)

Aptos, California

Camarillo, California

Castro Valley, California

Cerritos, California

Day Valley, California

Laguna Beach, California

Long Beach, California

Mission Viejo, California

Perris, California(2 reports)

Rio del Mar, California

San Marcos, California

Temecula, California

Valley Center, California

Ventura, California

Vista, California

Walnut Creek, California

Auburndale, Florida

Bartow, Florida(2 reports)

Bradley, Florida

Brooksville, Florida(2 reports)

Chiefland, Florida

Crawfordville, Florida

Daytona Beach, Florida

Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Fort Myers, Florida

Gainesville, Florida

Havana, Florida

Hollywood, Florida

Indialantic, Florida

Inverness, Florida

Jacksonville, Florida

Kissimmee, Florida

Lady Lake, Florida

Lecanto, Florida

Miami, Florida(2 reports)

Mulberry, Florida

New Port Richey, Florida(2 reports)

Niceville, Florida

Ocala, Florida

Odessa, Florida

Oldsmar, Florida

Palm Harbor, Florida

Pensacola, Florida(2 reports)

Port Saint Lucie, Florida

Saint Petersburg, Florida

Sarasota, Florida

Tallahassee, Florida

Tampa, Florida

Wauchula, Florida

Wellborn, Florida

Winter Springs, Florida(2 reports)

Yulee, Florida

Zephyrhills, Florida

Brunswick, Georgia

Carrollton, Georgia

Cordele, Georgia

Patterson, Georgia

Savannah, Georgia

Abita Springs, Louisiana

Independence, Louisiana

New Orleans, Louisiana

Hattiesburg, Mississippi

Moss Point, Mississippi

Saint Joseph, Missouri

Bluffton, South Carolina

Conway, South Carolina

Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Seabrook, South Carolina

West Columbia, South Carolina

Austin, Texas

Baytown, Texas

Corpus Christi, Texas

Dripping Springs, Texas

Fort Worth, Texas

Hallettsville, Texas

Houston, Texas(2 reports)

Humble, Texas

La Porte, Texas

Missouri City, Texas

Orange, Texas(2 reports)

San Antonio, Texas

Spring, Texas

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Nov 22, 2020, JPinFLA from Jacksonville, FL (Zone 9a) wrote:

2 varieties that look identical: Senna Penuda(invasive) v Senna bicapularis(not invasive). Senna pendula has the elongated pedicels (flower stalks) which readily distinguish it from Senna bicapsularis. UF/IFAS.


On Aug 10, 2019, Katymaynot from Laguna Niguel, CA wrote:

Recently purchased a large Senna that had been trained up into a beautiful umbrella shaped tree. We had it planted right next to our patio. While I love it, it seems to be attracting bees even out of bloom! From what Im reading here, its not supposed to bloom until winter and so Im concerned that the bees will be here all year. I really dont mind the bees, but Im wishing that the nursery would have advised us not to plant it so close to the dining area on our patio. Would certainly love to hear any suggestions!


On Mar 18, 2018, lightyellow from Ponte Vedra Beach, FL wrote:

Contrary to a negative review below, this plant does not spread by seed easily which is why it is propagated via cuttings in the trade.
Cassia/Senna pendula looks a lot like it, the two are almost identical, and it is the one that spreads rapidly by seed and is considered an invasive species in Florida. If you look online there are various technical ways of differentiating the two but the easiest way is to see when it flowers. Winter Cassia flowers later, from late fall to winter depending on climate. The invasive species can flower in late summer but also any reputable nursery no longer sells that species.


On Dec 19, 2016, ezeemonee from Ventura, CA (Zone 10a) wrote:

After planting these Senna Bicapsularis a year ago on a west facing slope in our yard in a mix of potting soil, cactus mix, and our local clay soil. They are doing great and they just started blooming this fall once they reached a height of about 5'. We have drippers on them dripping twice a week until the rains started and we turned them off. They attract a lot of large yellow Cloudless Sulphur butterflies who use this as their host plant and we have spotted a few of their caterpillars on the bushes. They hardly make a dent into the foliage of these fast growing shrubs. We got these as relatively small rooted cuttings from Top Tropicals in FL who shipped them cross country to CA successfully.


On Sep 16, 2015, DavidLMo from St Joseph, MO wrote:

Growing as a Bonsai in Zone 5B. Wish I could stick it in the ground. :-) Very cute subject though and a bit larger than traditional bonsai. Second year and I over winter in my basement under lights.


On Sep 18, 2014, gtbabic from The Villages, FL wrote:

Region 9A, cut it back to about 6 feet in mid-summer after it grew a bit too tall, but feared I might have cut off blooming stems. Not to worry - as of mid-September, it is again filled with the big yellow flowers that will last through frost. Although it is a bit boring during summer, sitting there all green while everything else is in color. now it is a show-stopper as the annuals and perennials are giving up the ghost. With the pruning, I have kept it to about 8 feet tall. Of course,it is great for the butterflies.


On Sep 16, 2014, Lmaris from Mission Bend, TX wrote:

I bought two of these trees 18 months ago (March 2013), and each was about 20" tall. Within 6 months, they were 6' tall and the trunks 1.5" thick. By 10 months, they had reached 8' and very bushy.

Late in September 2013, the trees started to produce a ton of buds at the end of every branch and twig. In mid October, the blooms started to open. Blooming lasted well into January.

We had 4 hard freezes the winter of 2013-2014 in Houston, but these young trees barely lost a leaf even without protection

Sulfer butterflies love them, and hummingbirds seem to be nesting in the folliage. More hang out in this tree, even without blossoms, than any tree or shrub in my yard.

After the first year, I have given very little supplemental wat... read more


On Oct 3, 2013, UrbanJungleMiami from Cutler, FL wrote:

Cassia Bicapsularis Christman Cassia was recommended to me a super butterfly gardener in Fort Lauderdale. The seeds are very hard to find.

Apparently vendors are pretty much afraid to sell this seed.

From the seeds I bought from the vendor who I wil leave un named, 3 plants survived and we have 3 nice christmas cassia trees on the small side. I hope they bloom this winter and give us seed. I think I have the correct plant because we have seen catapillars on the plants.


On Jun 28, 2013, chavateach from Palm Harbor, FL wrote:

This is one of my favorite plants in my garden, here in Palm Harbor, FL. I love the beautiful shape of the tree, how the leaves close up and "go to sleep" at night. The butterflies it attracts are wonderful, but best of all are the showy, gorgeous yellow flowers when it blooms. I can't begin to tell you how many people have stopped and asked about it. I have cut stalks with blooms, to show in arrangements in my home, they are delightful. I am going to try to propagate my Cassia with cuttings, as I am moving and want to take a smaller version potted with me. Not sure how many years I have had this, been in this home for 16 years and I think I bought it about 10+ years ago. If you love yellow flowers, beautifully shaped trees, sleepy leaves, then enjoy this amazing tree.


On Dec 6, 2011, sunnydaze45 from Mesa, AZ wrote:

I bought this plant four years ago at a big box store in the month of December. It was covered with beautiful flowers. That was the last time it had flowers. The leaves aren't ugly, but I didn't buy it for it's leaves. I've thought about pulling it up, but I don't have the heart to kill it. I keep thinking it will reward my patience, but so far it has failed me.


On Dec 10, 2010, ThomPotempa from Houston, TX wrote:

Yes it does have to be watched about taking over... but this is sort of the idea where it is planted in my garden, trying to do something in the former kingdom of bermuda grass...

My favorite flower. Have 3 of them. They stayed green through the freeze last winter and have required no water this drought summer.


On Oct 27, 2009, abken from New Orleans, LA wrote:

Easy, vigorous growth, but beware....This plant will take over if it's happy. I've known it to tightly bind shutters to the owner's second story by interlacing its growth through the slats and to block a neighbor's access to her shed door as it spilled over the fence. Do not turn your back on it.


On Jul 25, 2009, fullsun007 from Gainesville, FL wrote:

The winter cassia is a great plant for the fall garden in zones 8 or higher, when many other plants are winding down this guy just releases a mass of blooms from October through first frost. The 1" flowers have an orchid like appearance. The plant is the host plant for Sulphur butterflies. It performs best when in good sun. I prune mine to a height of 3 feet each spring and by the fall they are 12 feet tall, a good choice for a nice splash of color.


On Apr 13, 2009, iodice from Moss Point, MS wrote:

I planted three last year in zone 8b, they grew fast (now 8' tall) but tropical storm blew all the leaves off and they grew back, winter frost knocked all the leaves off (not grown back yet). It didn't bloom last year (first year in ground) and I don't know if I should cut it back this spring or wait for it to bloom on existing trunk and stems.


On Nov 29, 2008, Lily_love from Central, AL (Zone 7b) wrote:

This Senna blooms late in the season, hence is sometimes called 'Christmas Senna'.

This plant is used as herbaceous perennial here in my garden, some years, like this year the flowers were late in the season, thus none were pollinated in time for seeds.

The plant can temporarily tolerate mild frost in early winters. It's a hostplant for sulpher butterflies.


On Apr 9, 2008, CBernard from Perris, CA (Zone 9a) wrote:

I was given a few of these seeds in December 2006. I transplanted two of these plants and kept one in a pot. The two that are planted are now four feet high. The one in the pot just started blooming in March 2008. Beautiful plants!!

Just as an update on my Senna bicapsularis, I gave the blooming senna to a friend who is an expert in getting the plant to grow. The two I planted still haven't bloomed but they are now ten feet tall and a beautiful shrub planted next to each other. I can hardly wait for them to bloom so I can see what butterflies and insects are attracted to them in our area.




On Oct 15, 2007, WebInt from Vista, CA (Zone 10a) wrote:

Just when your SoCal garden is starting to expire and head into the winter funk, this plant flowers and warms up the garden. It is attractive even not in flower and can be trained into a small tree to about 10 - 15 feet tall. Mine seems to always have the pesky Argentine Ants on it and I need to use snail poison three times a year as slugs will invade it and destroy all new growth in the course of a few days. Other then the fact it does 'weed', I still find this plant to be well worth it in the garden. Depending on the plant it can flower from late September well into November.


On Mar 12, 2007, natrgrl from Abita Springs, LA (Zone 8b) wrote:

Hi from natrgrl in zone 8b Abita Springs, La.

My Mother had to have this plant, so for a couple of hours
she and I drove around to every yard where I could remember seeing one trying to gather info to find out what type of plant this was. We did not succeed in finding out, however God is good and as we drove home we spotted them passing by a nursery on the way. Both of us purchased the plant. I actually like to see them grown like a tree as they are very unique looking. My Mom planted hers immediately because she is very diligent in these ways, I am not. So my little tree stayed in it's pot for quite a long time I'm ashamed to say. Truly I thought I had killed it. Winter had made all of its leaves fall off and it was rather cold out, so no I didn't even water it. I w... read more


On Oct 21, 2005, artcons from Fort Lauderdale, FL (Zone 10b) wrote:

I have two growing in the yard for three years now. One on the NE corner, the other in the SW corner. Both plants are about 8-9 ft tall. They are low maintenance bushes with the beautiful yellow flowers providing winter interest. They bloom from November to early January.

A favorite larvae plant of sulphur and white butterflies. An oddity with the sulphur caterpillars that feed on the leaves from this plant. In the spring through early fall these cats are green and black. In the late fall when the plants are blooming the cats become yellow and black because they then eat the yellow flowers instead of the leaves.

In zone 10 I have not found a single offshoot of these plants anywhere in the yard.

In my pictured plant it's shown proped up. ... read more


On Apr 13, 2005, JaxFlaGardener from Jacksonville, FL (Zone 8b) wrote:

This plant was not doing well in my garden until I moved it to an area of full sun. It then grew to a height of about 6 ' in one season. I have interplanted it with Cape Honeysuckle (Tecomania capensis). These two plants have a similar growth habit and bloom just about simultaneously in the Fall in my climate. The mixture of the Senna's bright yellow with the bright orange of the Tecomania creates a very attractive color combination!


On Apr 12, 2005, Kameha from Kissimmee, FL (Zone 9b) wrote:

Beautiful yellow orchid-like flowers in fall and winter. Grows like a weed, even if killed by a freeze it will flower by next fall. It attracts sulfur butterflies to lay their eggs on the foliage. The caterpillars feed on the leaves. This leguminous tree also has another interesting feature-its leaves fold in at night and are even more attractive in my opinion. You can actually watch it slowly fold in its leaves at sunset.


On Jul 21, 2003, Xuziqueue from Saint Petersburg, FL wrote:

Although the Christmas Senna is indeed beautiful in bloom, I find that it propagates too easily by seed. I have large patches of seedlings growing in various spots of my yard, too numerous to pull out unless I had hours of idle time on my hands. I am contemplating getting rid of this plant. I just have to decide which I prefer more: the cloudless sulphur butterflies it attracts and its beautiful yellow canopy or not finding it growing in thousands of places in my yard.


On Nov 20, 2002, lilyb from Brunswick, GA wrote:

Senna bicapsularis is a fall bloomer


On Aug 22, 2002, FLSuncoast from Sarasota, FL (Zone 9a) wrote:

The flowers are also very attractive to bees and butterflies. The plant, a member of the Royal Poinciana family, can be found in almost all the tropical areas of the world. The tree can be kept as a potted specimen with judicious pruning. Makes an excellent small specimen for limited-space areas such as street sides or parking lots.