Arisaema Species, Bog Onion, Brown Dragon, Indian Turnip, Jack-in-the-Pulpit,

Arisaema triphyllum

Family: Araceae (a-RAY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Arisaema (air-uh-SEE-muh) (Info)
Species: triphyllum (try-FIL-um) (Info)
Synonym:Arisaema acuminatum
Synonym:Arisaema atrorubens var. zebrinum
Synonym:Arisaema atrorubens
View this plant in a garden




Water Requirements:

Requires consistently moist soil; do not let dry out between waterings

Sun Exposure:

Light Shade

Partial to Full Shade



Foliage Color:

Medium Green


24-36 in. (60-90 cm)


9-12 in. (22-30 cm)

12-15 in. (30-38 cm)


USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

Where to Grow:

Grow outdoors year-round in hardiness zone


All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Bloom Color:

Pale Green

Chartreuse (yellow-green)

Dark Purple/Black



Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Mid Spring

Late Spring/Early Summer

Other details:

Unknown - Tell us

Soil pH requirements:

5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

By dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs (including offsets)

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

Seed Collecting:

Remove fleshy coating on seeds before storing

Unblemished fruit must be significantly overripe before harvesting seed; clean and dry seeds

Seed does not store well; sow as soon as possible


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:


Tuskegee, Alabama

Weaver, Alabama

Wilmington, Delaware

Miccosukee Cpo, Florida

Oldsmar, Florida

Saint Petersburg, Florida

Atlanta, Georgia

Cordele, Georgia

Cornelia, Georgia

Cherry Valley, Illinois

Plainfield, Illinois

Bloomington, Indiana

Hobart, Indiana

Indianapolis, Indiana

Valparaiso, Indiana

Barbourville, Kentucky

Melbourne, Kentucky

Elkton, Maryland

Gwynn Oak, Maryland

Laurel, Maryland

Dracut, Massachusetts

Roslindale, Massachusetts

Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts

Belleville, Michigan

Cedar Springs, Michigan

Leland, Michigan

Owosso, Michigan

Pinconning, Michigan

Saginaw, Michigan

Hopkins, Minnesota

Isle, Minnesota

Minneapolis, Minnesota (3 reports)

New Ulm, Minnesota

Saint Cloud, Minnesota

Marietta, Mississippi

Lincoln, Nebraska

Greenville, New Hampshire

Wilmot, New Hampshire

Frenchtown, New Jersey

Plainfield, New Jersey

Hilton, New York

Willsboro, New York

Elizabeth City, North Carolina

Columbus, Ohio

Guysville, Ohio

Grants Pass, Oregon

Walterville, Oregon

Greencastle, Pennsylvania

Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania

Tiverton, Rhode Island

Viola, Tennessee

Houston, Texas

Blacksburg, Virginia

Broadway, Virginia

Leesburg, Virginia

Port Ludlow, Washington

Elkhorn, Wisconsin

Ellsworth, Wisconsin

Franklin, Wisconsin

Marinette, Wisconsin

Pulaski, Wisconsin

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Gardeners' Notes:


On Mar 25, 2018, JennysGarden_TN from Collierville, TN wrote:

Arisaema triphyllum grows well in my zone 7b shade garden. Every year around this time, I look forward to its exquisite blooms.


On Dec 20, 2014, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:

Curiously interesting, and in its own way beautiful. Almost more than any other plant, this one says "eastern woodland" to me.

Highly variable in many traits, including mature size and spathe coloration.

Takes several years to reach blooming size from seed, and several years more to maturity. Small plants have only male flowers, larger plants have both male and female flowers at the base of the "jack" (the spadix). Plants cannot fertilize themselves.

In the wild, this is usually found in wet soil next to water. In the garden, it does well in ordinary moist well-drained garden soil with shade.

This species is hardy to Z3.

Arisaema collectors should know that A. triphyllum often carries a rust disease which can be di... read more


On May 24, 2013, ms_greenjeans from Hopkins, MN (Zone 4a) wrote:

I planted one tiny pot of these a couple of summers ago. They are now starting to multiply and bloom; for awhile I thought they might not work. They are in deep shade, under a huge double-trunked cedar tree, and in close proximity to several black walnut trees-definitely a challenging spot. They are very unique, and I hope they continue to thrive.


On May 24, 2013, plant_it from Valparaiso, IN wrote:

Gorgeous native plant. It's so cool that we have such a tropical looking plant in the Midwest. Flowers April to May and produces a cluster of red berries mid to late Summer. Tolerates dense shade and being under Black Walnut trees.


On May 20, 2008, trioadastra from Woodbury, MN (Zone 4a) wrote:

These are growing wild in my backyard, so they are definately zone 4 hardy. I had heard they were rare in the wild, but they are coming up everywhere, and spread easily by seed. The young plants only send up one or two sets of leaves, and the mature plants will flower in progressively larger sizes. New corms are smaller than pea size, and I have some large ones that are golfball size. They also transplant easily, and can take a fair but of sun, but like to be kept moist.


On May 14, 2008, Katze from Minneapolis, MN (Zone 4a) wrote:

Plant is native to Minnesota and is hardy to Zone 4 (per care information that came with my plant).

I planted two of these last spring; thought both had died due to over-watering last summer. Today, I was pleasantly surprised to find that one plant is still alive and about to bloom! Definitely a unique-looking plant that adds interest to any shade garden.


On May 29, 2007, Pulpit172 from Roxbury, NY wrote:

I have 100's of Jack in the Pulpit plants growing behind my house. Its amazing to see these fascinating plants everywhere. Sorry I dont have a picture.


On May 18, 2006, McCool from Millbury, MA (Zone 5a) wrote:

We have a ton of these growing in the small wooded area in our yard. As far as I know, they planted themselves and are on the increase year by year. They are even sending envoys out into the grassy areas in some places. I think that some of them are enjoying runoff from the huge heap of shredded leaves that we have (composter just can't keep up with them), as the ones in the area just below the compost heap are getting positively huge!


On Jun 18, 2005, mikki from Marshfield, MA (Zone 6b) wrote:

Have many of these growing in the woods behind the house and since I put in the shade garden under the maples they have moved into the shadier, moister area there also! They seem to be increasing every year and are fun to watch.


On Jun 23, 2004, ariodlove from Louisville, KY wrote:

Arisaema triphyllium likes deep shade to shade, and hummus rich soil. It is also good to add a layer of mulch on it.They will form large groups rapidly. The pulpit will last about a week or two. The leaves can get 10 inches long. After the pulpit dies , if it is a female, you will see green berries that change to red in the fall. The females will have 2 sets of leaves, while the males will only have one.


On Aug 5, 2003, MotherNature4 from Bartow, FL (Zone 9a) wrote:

A.triphyllum is growing wild in Polk County, FL. It is a fairly common plant of the wetlands throughout the state. In central Florida, it blooms in late February and early March.


On Jul 21, 2001, kat7 from Bloomingdale, NJ (Zone 6a) wrote:

Native to eastern north america. Each of the 2 ft leaf stalks bears three 6" leaflets. Flowering stems, usually taller than the leaves, carry a hooded spathe to 6", green or purple with white stripes (the pulpit), and green or purple spadix (jack). A common woodland plant. The name indian turnip refers to the root which contains calcium oxallate crystals that sting the tongue and throat.