Toxicodendron Species, Eastern Poison Ivy, Poison Ivy

Toxicodendron radicans

Family: Anacardiaceae (an-a-kard-ee-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Toxicodendron (toks-ee-ko-DEN-dron) (Info)
Species: radicans (RAD-ee-kans) (Info)


Vines and Climbers

Water Requirements:

Drought-tolerant; suitable for xeriscaping

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Sun to Partial Shade



Provides Winter Interest

Foliage Color:

Medium Green


6-8 ft. (1.8-2.4 m)


over 40 ft. (12 m)


USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 C (-40 F)

USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 C (-35 F)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Handling plant may cause skin irritation or allergic reaction

Bloom Color:

Pale Green

Chartreuse (yellow-green)


Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Late Spring/Early Summer

Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

Unknown - Tell us

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

By dividing the rootball

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse

By simple layering

Seed Collecting:

Remove fleshy coating on seeds before storing

Allow unblemished fruit to ripen; clean and dry seeds

Unblemished fruit must be significantly overripe before harvesting seed; clean and dry seeds

Wear gloves to protect hands when handling seeds


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Cullman, Alabama

Jones, Alabama

Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Fayetteville, Arkansas

Fresno, California

San Anselmo, California

San Diego, California

Bartow, Florida

Lutz, Florida

New Port Richey, Florida

Old Town, Florida

Tallahassee, Florida

Hawkinsville, Georgia

Batavia, Illinois

Jacksonville, Illinois

Mackinaw, Illinois

Hobart, Indiana

Ames, Iowa

Des Moines, Iowa

Benton, Kentucky

Lexington, Kentucky

South China, Maine

Brookeville, Maryland

Cumberland, Maryland

Riverdale, Maryland

Milton, Massachusetts

Roslindale, Massachusetts

Waltham, Massachusetts

Dearborn Heights, Michigan

Mount Morris, Michigan

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Marietta, Mississippi

Mathiston, Mississippi

Ocean Springs, Mississippi

Cole Camp, Missouri

Kansas City, Missouri

Piedmont, Missouri

Rogersville, Missouri

Dunellen, New Jersey

Beacon, New York

West Kill, New York

Clayton, North Carolina

Four Oaks, North Carolina

Henderson, North Carolina

Mooresville, North Carolina

Newton Grove, North Carolina

Norlina, North Carolina

Raleigh, North Carolina

Smithfield, North Carolina

Wilsons Mills, North Carolina

Bucyrus, Ohio

Cleveland, Ohio

Clyde, Ohio

Hilliard, Ohio

New Carlisle, Ohio

Vinton, Ohio

Pocola, Oklahoma

Downingtown, Pennsylvania

Glen Rock, Pennsylvania

Greencastle, Pennsylvania

Millersburg, Pennsylvania

Morrisville, Pennsylvania

Norristown, Pennsylvania

Hope Valley, Rhode Island

Conway, South Carolina

Rock Hill, South Carolina

Arlington, Texas

Austin, Texas(3 reports)

Dallas, Texas

Mc Kinney, Texas

Red Oak, Texas

San Antonio, Texas(2 reports)

Spicewood, Texas

Edmond, West Virginia

Peterstown, West Virginia

Merrimac, Wisconsin

Oconto, Wisconsin

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Mar 10, 2014, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:

This is such an aggressive weed that I'd need to control it even if it weren't toxic, in order to grow other plants.

Spraying with 2% glyphosate herbicide will kill it. Wait till the leaves are fully expanded, wet them all using the coarsest spray setting. (That's to prevent accidental herbicide damage to desirable plants through spray drift---large droplets don't drift as far on the air.)

Wait at least two weeks more before cutting the stems. Dispose of it in landfill. Old, dried debris remains toxic for years.

Those who aren't allergic should know that repeated exposure can sensitize your immune system to the toxic resin. No one should expose themselves to it unnecessarily.

Barrier creams can help prevent contact with the res... read more


On Jan 12, 2010, theNobody14161 from Mahtowa, MN wrote:

This plant can give a rash, though the rash isnt nearly as bad as poison sumac. It used to run rampet with virginia creeper in the woods next door to my house, until garlic mustard destroyed it.


On Jan 8, 2010, treehugggr from New Port Richey, FL (Zone 9b) wrote:

I have been cultivating Poison Ivy, and Toxicodendron rydbergii (Poison Oak) for years, as a "creep-deterrant" around windows and such. Works well when mixed with thorny plants.

If you have a teen daughter, the boys won't crawl in (not more than once anyway), and she will never sneak out the window!


On Jun 7, 2008, peachespickett from Huntington, AR wrote:

Interesting thing I read....Twenty year-old herbarium specimens of poison ivy still gave rashes to the botanists examining them. Even though they had been dried out and setting in a drawer for twenty years, the oils were still potent enough to cause a reaction. Lucky for me I don't seem to be affected by it, though my Dad looks like a burn victim every time he gets done working in the woods.


On May 29, 2008, Malus2006 from Coon Rapids, MN (Zone 4a) wrote:

I dislike this plant - as a additonal note: Here in Minnesota the poison ivy here tend to be subshrub - commonly less than 1 foot even thought I have seen one plant go to 3 feet! The vine form is rare or absent here. Subshrub means that it grows from a single woody stem. I have seen poison ivy from zone 3b (they seem to hate -30 degree rocky acidic soil so you will never see them in boreal forests) to the Everglades in Florida!


On May 21, 2008, Lothar7 from Ames, IA wrote:

I've sprayed, pulled then bagged these little demons for over a month now. I have been collecting the remains in a yard waste bag for disposal... However, after reading the warnings about burning this weed I'm concerned that I may be endangering someone by leaving this bag for curbside pickup (our local power plant burns trash).

I've read tons of suggestions about killing this weed but I haven't really seen a good recommendation for its safe disposal.


On Apr 27, 2008, sarazen from Glen Rock, PA (Zone 6b) wrote:

Nightmare plant. I have a small tree line behind my house and it is over-run with the stuff. It is so robust in this area, I had one vine that was easily 30 to 40 years old and had transformed into something of bonsai bush when the tree that supported it died and rotted away!

To begin to clear it out, my husband and I must have cut over 100 vines last fall, many go up 20ft. or more so getting them off the trees is not possible. Now the under-story is now flooded with seedings, some from the major roots, and others from seeds. What makes this even worse is that both my husband and I develop a nasty ITCHY WEEPING RASH from handling the stuff, even sometimes from the air. If it is burned the evil oil floats in the smoke and can invade the eyes, nose, ears, even the lungs.... read more


On Nov 28, 2007, creekwalker from Benton County, MO (Zone 5a) wrote:

Fortunately, I have never been allergic to this plant, though there is always a first time.

If you do get into a patch accidently, look around for Jewellweed as it is a remedy for Poison Ivy. Crush the plant and rub it on the areas that were exposed. Jewellweed often grows with Poison Ivy.


On Sep 22, 2007, tropicsofohio from Hilliard, OH (Zone 6b) wrote:

I love to hate this plant, its invasive and even though I'm not as affected by it, I still hate it because I get that itchy little rash.

The only reason I am less affected is because my body learned how to protect itself when I was young. when i was 8 I had a bad rash that resulted in going to the children's hospital.

It's impossible to kill. this plant could survive a nuclear war. Humans are the only known animal to get a reaction.


On Sep 10, 2007, filthpig from Avon Lake, OH wrote:

I just moved to an area in Ohio called Avon Lake. I think this is the mecca for poison ivy. Yes, I am allergic like so many. As a professional gardening landscaper, I can't help wonder why would anyone want to propagate this horrific plant.

There are so many other vines that do not irritate and are much more handsome. I heard a story of a guy that was showing off to his friends that he was not allergic by rubbing the foliage all over his skin. Then he proceeded to really impress them by ingesting one. I guess after his throat started closing up they were all awe struck. P.S. for those who may not know, never burn firewood that may have the ivy attached to it (very bad for throat and lungs). And the vine is active in the winter and for a period after it is dead as well. I pre... read more


On May 17, 2006, chicochi3 from Fayetteville, AR (Zone 6b) wrote:

I'll give this a neutral because of the things in my yard that I hate even more. Like greenbriers. Porcelain berries. Virginia creeper. Honeysuckle. Boxwoods. After dealing with all these, the poison ivy isn't half bad.


On Dec 20, 2005, winter_unfazed from Rural Webster County, MO (Zone 6a) wrote:

This plant grows thick in some spots here, making it a nightmare to harvest the black raspberries that grow along with them. The only positive is that the sight of it deters traffic in places such as fences.


On Oct 26, 2005, Breezymeadow from Culpeper, VA (Zone 7a) wrote:

Except for its supposed importance to wildlife, I find absolutely nothing to recommend this plant. It spreads strongly & prodigiously, climbs high up into treetops here, eventually producing vines inches thick that can damage them.

That said, although it has little to no effect on me, my husband is HIGHLY allergic to it; thus I pull it out or apply a Roundup-type organic product to it whenever I find it. I can't imagine anyone purposely encouraging its existence, & doubt any wildlife depends on it solely for survival.


On Oct 25, 2005, c_etude from Winter Haven, FL wrote:

Did you know you can bonsai just about any plant? This includes poison ivy. ALTHOUGH THE UTMOST CARE MUST BE DONE--AS IT HAS VERY ALLERGIC CAUSING SECRETIONS--personal protective equipment such as heavy gloves, goggles, and boil utensils after use. Incredibly, it makes a beautiful bonsai tree. Just don't touch it. The vine itself IS quite beautiful. (Yes you can make bonsai trees out of any vine, including english ivy, and whatever else you can think of!)

Poison ivy is practical too:

As long as you have no children or pets, this actually makes a good "watch plant"--that is, using nature's attributes to help protect yourself. Why is poison ivy poisonous--to protect itself. It is *defense*. It IS a very pretty vine and as potted plants hung near windows with... read more


On Jun 26, 2004, megamuffin from Baton Rouge, LA wrote:

I know this sounds crazy, but after days of contemplating what to do about a patch of poison ivy, I decided to make friends with it (read book "Growing Myself- A Spiritual Journey Through Gardening" by Judith Handelsman--very enlightening perspective).

I have two young boys (4&5) that only saw poison ivy in OK at Grandma's house until we moved here to Louisiana from Colorado.

Every chance I get I show them the leaves and describe the itchy reaction dramatically (from personal experience)! So far my warning has been heeded, as I stare at the bright green leaves encircling the base of a live oak tree. I know the birds did it (Which birds? 'mock'ingbirds, probably--hee, hee!)

"How little we know as yet of the life of plants----the... read more


On Jun 16, 2004, Wingnut from Spicewood, TX (Zone 8b) wrote:

I'm another person who has a severe allergy to poison ivy.

Just have to add to look CLOSELY at ALL the pictures you see anywhere. This plant can look remarkably different in different areas.


On Jun 12, 2004, CatskillKarma from West Kill, NY wrote:

I live in the Catskill mountains where poison ivy is endemic. I am highly susceptible to the rash and did my best to avoid it until I took up night hunting with hounds for raccoons. Before then, I had several bouts lasting longer than the doctors said was possible and have scars to prove it. Since taking up hunting in the dark, though, I haven't been able to avoid poison ivy. But, other hunters showed me how to keep it to a minimum:

Before gardening or hunting, grease up with cold cream, Vaseline, or whatever greasy stuff is handy. This prevents the toxic oils from penetrating to your skin as quickly. If I am careful to wash thoroughly when I get back--and put my outer clothing directly in the washing machine--I don't get the rash. I have occasionally gotten the rash from s... read more


On Jan 24, 2004, MotherNature4 from Bartow, FL (Zone 9a) wrote:

Yes, short haired dogs certainly can get a rash from poison ivy. Our dachshund's belly was covered with it after running through a patch growing on the ground. Mother Nature


On Jan 24, 2004, suncatcheracres from Old Town, FL wrote:

I have six acres of this plant, and although I am 1/8 Native American, Cherokee tribe, I am highly allergic to it. I love my property, but this plant and the also highly toxic (to me) trumpet creeper have made gardening here very miserable for me at times. After over 25 years as an organic gardener, I have had to finally resort to Roundup (after reading everything I could on the internet about it) as there is no way to pull up the ever present roots physically without getting some of the plant on me. This plant also keeps me from petting my dog, as dogs do not have reactions to this plant, but I can certainly get it from her just by petting her.

My son is also allergic to it, and he gets it every time he visits, and he told me to use Dawn dishwashing detergent and don't... read more


On Jan 24, 2004, antkneeh from Topeka, KS wrote:

I've always been fortunate not to be allergic to any of the 'leaves of three' plants. I am a Native American and wanted to pass on this old wives tale. I was told that if, in spring, you ingest a small amount of the leaf, that it would render you immune to the plant for the year. I don't advise this, as it is a highly dangerous plant, especially if you are allergic.

I once lived in a small house that had a roof problem. To get to the roof, I'd climb the tree in the back using these huge vines for handhold and footholds. when we hired someone to fix the roof, he asked how I got up to the roof. He was neither immune nor amused when he got covered head to toe with the rash.


On Jan 24, 2004, Toxicodendron from Piedmont, MO (Zone 6a) wrote:

Even though I took this plant's name as my Dave's ID, I did so because I figured it was so despised that no one else would be using it, not because I like the plant. I have had many severe reactions to the toxins in this plant, both from skin contact and smoke inhalation (The latter almost killed me as a child, my throat nearly swelled shut, along with my eyes. It took 3 weeks to get over that episode).

It is true that birds like the seeds. Because of that, new seedlings come up all over the place if you allow seed bearing size plants on your property. I have been nearly overrun with this plant everywhere I have lived in this part of Missouri. Every hiking, camping, and fishing trip is one long ordeal of trying to avoid the plant. I used to try pulling it up, roots and all,... read more


On Jan 24, 2004, wnstarr from Puyallup, WA (Zone 5a) wrote:

Why would anyone want this poisonous plant on or near their property? It is very striking in the fall when the foliage has colored up. But this has lead to many a person getting infected by picking fall foliage. The old boy scout warning about leaves in groups of threes is true. Do not touch, burn or eat any part of this plant.


On Jan 23, 2004, htop from San Antonio, TX (Zone 8b) wrote:

It is a plant that has been put here on earth for a reason. It does have a nice fall color.Other comments about not being bothered by this plant may explain why I am not very susceptible to its poisons. I am of Native American ancestry on my maternal grandmother's side of my family.

I don't usually advertise a product, but several people said that Zanfel helps with the itching and pain:


On Jan 23, 2004, Ewald from Limerick, PA (Zone 6b) wrote:

It grows luxuriantly and has pretty red fall color. It's suitable for poor soils, or just cracks in pavement, in urban areas. No one plants it, but its good for growing on a fence to dissuade climbers. It feeds birds... but I still pull it out whenever I find it in my back yard. I just thought someone should have something nice to say about it.

Dave Ewald


On Oct 7, 2002, FranG from Brighton, MA wrote:

The leaves at any stage, the stems, and the roots are all poisonous. Never burn to destroy! The smoke inhaled can kill!


On Aug 31, 2001, Terry from Murfreesboro, TN (Zone 7a) wrote:

"Leaves of three, let it be!" This member of the cashew family emits toxins through its foliage that are highly irritating to many people. Sometimes the rash will not show up for several hours or even days; but if you have a brush with poison ivy, prompt action can avoid an outbreak. Ideally, within within 10 minutes swab the area with rubbing alcohol (washing with soap and water may just spread it around further.)

When eradicating poison ivy, think twice about burning the cuttings, as the toxins will transmit through the air, causing severe irritation to lungs and nasal passages of anyone nearby.