Gymnocladus Species, Dead Tree, Kentucky Coffee Tree, Stump Tree

Gymnocladus dioica

Family: Fabaceae (fab-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Gymnocladus (jim-no-KLAD-us) (Info)
Species: dioica (dy-oh-EE-kuh) (Info)
Synonym:Guilandina dioica
Synonym:Gymnocladus canadensis
Synonym:Gymnocladus dioicus



Water Requirements:

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun



Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us


over 40 ft. (12 m)


20-30 ft. (6-9 m)


USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 C (-40 F)

USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 C (-35 F)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


Seed is poisonous if ingested

Bloom Color:

White/Near White

Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Late Spring/Early Summer

Other details:

Unknown - Tell us

Soil pH requirements:

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse

From seed; stratify if sowing indoors

Seed Collecting:

Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds

Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Denver, Colorado

Grand Junction, Colorado

Hinsdale, Illinois

Naperville, Illinois

Benton, Kentucky

Clermont, Kentucky

Frankfort, Kentucky

Georgetown, Kentucky

Lexington, Kentucky

Louisville, Kentucky

Nicholasville, Kentucky

Paris, Kentucky

Versailles, Kentucky

Silver Spring, Maryland

Battle Creek, Michigan

Grosse Pointe, Michigan

Novi, Michigan

Buffalo, Minnesota

Minneapolis, Minnesota(3 reports)

Roswell, New Mexico

Hulbert, Oklahoma

Downingtown, Pennsylvania

Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania

Nashville, Tennessee

Orem, Utah

Wytheville, Virginia

Grand Mound, Washington

Rochester, Washington

Ellsworth, Wisconsin

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Dec 19, 2013, Rickwebb from Downingtown, PA wrote:

Nice, stout, macho shade tree with a bold outline that grows about 1 ft/yr and lives about 100 to 150 years. Dioecious, having separate male and female trees, so that the females bear the thick, stout pods. There are some male cultivars for those who don't want fruit.


On Apr 18, 2011, Shaunapie from Chambersburg, PA wrote:

One of these trees grows outside my dorm I collected some seeds last month and cleaned them up the first one i've tried to grow already has roots going!


On Jun 25, 2008, Malus2006 from Coon Rapids, MN (Zone 4a) wrote:

Not very common in the Twin Cities area - they are fairly rare and the largest number I have seen is at the University of Minnesota St. Paul Campus but in a bit remote location and also at the Minnesota Arboretum.


On Feb 19, 2008, lobsterandi from Minneapolis, MN (Zone 4a) wrote:

The tree provides nice shade, but not such a dark shade that plants can't be grown underneath it. It seems to grow decently well anywhere... Its a pretty tree, turns very yellow in the fall.

It has nice big seeds. If you're planting htem indoors, I've found that a 72 hour hot water (not boiling) soak helps them out. If the seeds swell up, you've hit the jackpot. If they don't swell, try filing the seed coat until you see a little bit of the white insides, and then soak them in room temp water.

Note: When you file the seeds, make sure you don't file the embryo. The little pointy bump that sticks out of the seed is where the embryo is, so file well away from that area.


On Nov 29, 2004, melody from Benton, KY (Zone 7a) wrote:

This tree is mostly native West of the Applachians. It's seeds were roasted and used as coffee in some areas during the Civil War.

Native Americans were supposed to have roasted the seeds too...eating them as nuts. Care should be taken ,because as with any wild food, parts of this tree are poisionous. The pulp between the seeds is poision and cattle will even become ill after drinking water where seed pods have fallen into it.

The reddish wood is strong and coarse, but takes a good polish. It's useful in cabinets and makes fine fenceposts.

The unique bark makes for good Winter interest, and the large compound leaves make a fine shade tree for suburban areas.


On Sep 7, 2003, Glowclubbr from Silver Spring, MD wrote:

In Windsor, Ontario: it is nearly extinct in the wild, where it generally grows slowly. In intensive cultivation (i.e., water, abundant fertilizer, mulch, and no turf ), I had a seedling grow very fast - 20 feet in 5 years. However they do grow slowly after larger trees are transplanted.

An excellent street tree, they tolerate extreme heat, cold, salt, and just about any kind of soil. I have seen very large specimen in Ontario, and Maryland (U.S.) They are known to reach 130 feet tall, 70' is average. There is a large one on Main Street, in Laurel. It is very vigorous there, despite growing in terrible conditions. I also recomment the extremely rare and beautiful Chinese Coffee Tree. It grows at the U.S. National Arboretum, and seems hardy and moderate growing (zon... read more


On Jun 24, 2003, garbanzito from Denver, CO (Zone 5a) wrote:

Recommended as a lower-water street tree in Denver, CO. Slow-growing and leafs out late, which is a good defense against spring snows. As it matures, Gymnocladus dioicus gains a wonderfully angular winter profile.


On Aug 31, 2001, smiln32 from Oklahoma City, OK (Zone 7a) wrote:

This tree is a durable tree with an attractive form. The female trees produce fruit (pods that look lima bean-like) and are initially green, developing to brown, may persist for several years. The seeds can be slightly poisonous. Leaf color in autumn is yellow. This tree can reach a height of 80'.