Rudbeckia Species, Common Black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan, Gloriosa Daisy

Rudbeckia hirta

Family: Asteraceae (ass-ter-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Rudbeckia (rud-BEK-ee-a) (Info)
Species: hirta (HER-tuh) (Info)
View this plant in a garden



Water Requirements:

Drought-tolerant; suitable for xeriscaping

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun

Sun to Partial Shade



This plant is resistant to deer

Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us


24-36 in. (60-90 cm)


12-15 in. (30-38 cm)

15-18 in. (38-45 cm)


USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 C (-40 F)

USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 C (-35 F)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

Where to Grow:

Grow outdoors year-round in hardiness zone


All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Bloom Color:

Gold (yellow-orange)

Bloom Characteristics:

This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Mid Summer

Late Summer/Early Fall

Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

From seed; direct sow after last frost

Self-sows freely; deadhead if you do not want volunteer seedlings next season

Seed Collecting:

Allow seedheads to dry on plants; remove and collect seeds

Wear gloves to protect hands when handling seeds

Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Auburn, Alabama

Birmingham, Alabama

Enterprise, Alabama

Huntsville, Alabama

Mobile, Alabama

Saraland, Alabama

Mesa, Arizona

Jonesboro, Arkansas

Little Rock, Arkansas

Magalia, California

North Highlands, California

Stockton, California

Wheat Ridge, Colorado

Lewes, Delaware

Bartow, Florida

Bokeelia, Florida

Fort Myers, Florida

Hollywood, Florida

Homestead, Florida

Keystone Heights, Florida

Oldsmar, Florida

Sarasota, Florida

Trenton, Florida

Webster, Florida

Winter Springs, Florida

Zephyrhills, Florida

Augusta, Georgia

Cornelia, Georgia

Dallas, Georgia

Demorest, Georgia

Fayetteville, Georgia

Lilburn, Georgia

Marietta, Georgia

Monroe, Georgia

Winterville, Georgia

Anna, Illinois

Cherry Valley, Illinois

Divernon, Illinois

Jacksonville, Illinois

Palmyra, Illinois

Rockford, Illinois

Thomasboro, Illinois

Washington, Illinois

Greensburg, Indiana

Indianapolis, Indiana

Jeffersonville, Indiana

Muncie, Indiana

Warren, Indiana

Iowa City, Iowa

Yale, Iowa

Olathe, Kansas

Wichita, Kansas

Farmington, Kentucky

Melbourne, Kentucky

Hammond, Louisiana

Jeanerette, Louisiana

New Iberia, Louisiana

Cumberland, Maryland

Fort George G Meade, Maryland

Hughesville, Maryland

Laurel, Maryland

Valley Lee, Maryland

Foxboro, Massachusetts

Marlborough, Massachusetts

Needham, Massachusetts

Bay City, Michigan

Dearborn Heights, Michigan

Grosse Ile, Michigan

Pinconning, Michigan

Royal Oak, Michigan

Ypsilanti, Michigan

Minneapolis, Minnesota(2 reports)

Florence, Mississippi

Marietta, Mississippi

Mathiston, Mississippi

Aurora, Missouri

Piedmont, Missouri

Springfield, Missouri

Imperial, Nebraska

Omaha, Nebraska

Reno, Nevada

Nashua, New Hampshire

Bridgeton, New Jersey

Vincentown, New Jersey

Elephant Butte, New Mexico

Roswell, New Mexico

Brooklyn, New York

Crown Point, New York

Deposit, New York

Himrod, New York

Jefferson, New York

Wappingers Falls, New York

Yonkers, New York(2 reports)

Candler, North Carolina

Forest City, North Carolina

Raeford, North Carolina

Thomasville, North Carolina

West Jefferson, North Carolina

Belfield, North Dakota

Bowling Green, Ohio

Cincinnati, Ohio

Cleveland, Ohio

Columbia Station, Ohio

North Ridgeville, Ohio

Enid, Oklahoma

Jay, Oklahoma

Tulsa, Oklahoma

Bend, Oregon

Chiloquin, Oregon

Grants Pass, Oregon

Salem, Oregon

Mc Keesport, Pennsylvania

Mercer, Pennsylvania

Norristown, Pennsylvania

Watsontown, Pennsylvania

Gaston, South Carolina

Knoxville, Tennessee(2 reports)

Mc Minnville, Tennessee

Morrison, Tennessee

Thompsons Station, Tennessee

Viola, Tennessee

Arlington, Texas

Austin, Texas

Belton, Texas

Bulverde, Texas

Fort Worth, Texas(2 reports)

Garland, Texas

Greenville, Texas

Houston, Texas

Lufkin, Texas

New Braunfels, Texas(2 reports)

New Caney, Texas

Palmer, Texas

San Antonio, Texas(2 reports)

Spring Branch, Texas

Sugar Land, Texas

The Colony, Texas

Waxahachie, Texas

Leesburg, Virginia

Lexington, Virginia

Mc Lean, Virginia

Richmond, Virginia

Springfield, Virginia

Kalama, Washington

Mountlake Terrace, Washington

Puyallup, Washington

Rosalia, Washington

Brookfield, Wisconsin

Watertown, Wisconsin

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Sep 28, 2016, Cen from Hughesville, MD wrote:

Bright yellow, they just look happy. I would get more blooms if I dead-headed them, but the goldfinches love the seeds. They were close to the house and looked a bit scraggly so I have moved them to another sunny spot where the goldfinches can feast.


On Jan 23, 2016, JBtheExplorer from Southeast, WI wrote:

Rudbeckia hirta is a great plant. While each plant tends to grow differently, it always looks nice. These are a popular native species in the United States and they don't require any maintenance. They attract all sorts of pollinators and work well in any pollinator garden, butterfly garden, wildlife garden, native garden, or just about any other garden type. These are biennials and won't last more than two years. At the end of the season, I take the dried seedhead, turn it upside down, and rub it so the seeds fall around the area that I want them to, and they'll easily form new plants the next year.


On Jun 7, 2015, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:

I find this species gives a coarser effect than R. fulgida. It's floppier, has bigger hairier leaves, and often needs grooming, which R. fulgida never does. I have never found it to spread at the root, which R fulgida does.

It's also very short-lived, usually acting as a self-sowing annual or biennial. I find transplants never seem to do as well as plants grown in situ.

There are forms with big mahogany eyes, and some strains are entirely burgundy/mahogany with no yellow.

This species can be toxic to livestock when ingested in large quantities. It does not appear on medically documented lists of plants toxic to humans except for its capacity to give some susceptible people a skin rash on contact.

Hardy to Z3.


On Jun 7, 2015, LarryScot from Needham, MA (Zone 7a) wrote:

It's a nice perennial. However you have to be carefull because the root systems will take over much of the garden. I had to cut down half of the root system just to put 1 other perennial in.


On Jan 3, 2010, stormyla from Norristown, PA (Zone 6b) wrote:

I received this plant in a swap this spring. It bloomed non-stop for over 2 months. The hugh brown eye in the center made it very eyecatching. Definitely a keeper, I bought a few more and hope they over winter well.


On Jun 9, 2009, angele wrote:

Planted some seed received from a DG member and am very happy with this plant. Love the multiple blooms on one plant. Planted seed mid-spring yet had first bloom by June 1. This is in a bed with lots of tall perennials and with its shorter stature it adds a lot of beauty to the front of the bed.


On Aug 3, 2008, RosemaryA from Toronto, ON (Zone 5b) wrote:

Beautiful, easy-going plant smothered in long-lasting blooms. One of the plants in our garden has about 50 blossoms on it!


On Oct 21, 2007, pennefeather from McLean, VA (Zone 6b) wrote:

I started these from seed this spring. Germination was close to 100%. They spread quickly. With regular deadheading, these flowers have bloomed from early spring into October. They are carefree, pretty plants.


On Jul 16, 2007, sallyg from Anne Arundel,, MD (Zone 7b) wrote:

I use this as a self sowing annual. This year, they are along my driveway, where they have been blooming a long time non-stop. Goldfinches love them. One plant that tipped over and rooted itself along the stem is particularly good looking, (bushier) so I may try either pinching in spring, or tipping some, to make that happen in the future. True about the powdery mildew, but in full sun in a narrow bed against the house I'm not seeing it yet., or not noticing it because of the constant full bloom.


On Jul 3, 2007, birdgrrl from North Highlands (Sacto), CA (Zone 9a) wrote:

I didn't know what this plant was when it appeared in the flowerbed last year. It didn't grow much, wilted easily, and is a host for some kind of moth or butterfly catapillar that ate it like crazy. I almost pulled them up this spring, but they finally looked like they were growing, so I let them go. They have been blooming for at least 2 months now. They are 4 feet tall and 3 feet wide. They are so big I staked them and/or put tomato cages around them because they were spreading out so much. They are covered with 5-6" blooms that are yellow-orange, and some have a burgundy brown eye. The cone is brown. It's possibly the best plant I have this year!


On Jun 13, 2007, frostweed from Josephine, Arlington, TX (Zone 8a) wrote:

Black-eyed Susan, Gloriosa Daisy, Yellow Ox-eye Daisy Rudbeckia hirta, is Native to Texas and other States.


On Mar 2, 2006, raisedbedbob from Walkerton, VA (Zone 7a) wrote:

American Indians used root tea to treat worms and colds. As an external wash, they used it to treat sores, snakebite, and swelling. Root juice was used to treat earaches.


On Jan 28, 2006, Gabrielle from (Zone 5a) wrote:

I love the bright-sunny faces of Black-eyed Susans blooming all summer. They can withstand just about anything. My information says they are hardy in zones 3-10.


On May 4, 2004, JLD_II from Olathe, KS (Zone 6a) wrote:

I really like this flower, I only wish I could tell what they will turn out like plant to plant. Some of mine have wonderful red centers around the comb and others are just yellow. This spring I noticed slight differences in the foliage on the varied flowers. It seems the 1's with the bright red flame centers have thicker foliage and the leaves are very "furry" compared to the others that are all yellow. The all yellows look exactly like brown eyed susans except for the black eyes. My flowers are only 3 inches across at the most. This plant sure varies quite a bit. My seeds all came from a single flower, the flower was all yellow with no hint of red at all. I wished I could get them all red.


On Dec 8, 2003, vagardener from Springfield, VA wrote:

This plant can be invasive, but it provides such great color mid to late summer that is easy to ignore this aspect of it's genetic makeup. I have them planted in two side borders, one in full Virginia sun, and one in part shade. They do well in both areas. I have them planted with a mix of tall showy perennials, like Shasta Daisy, and False Sunflowers. They are every where in Northern Virginia and are used in Commercial landscapes. You need to keep on top of them or they will take over, especially in full sun.


On Dec 7, 2003, htop from San Antonio, TX (Zone 8b) wrote:

San Antonio, Tx.
The perennial rudbeckia in my photo was very sturdy stalks a large attractive leaves. The flowers were 5 to 6 inches across. I use the past tense because a dog that was running loose in my neighborhood urinated on it several times and killed it. I have not been able to find another one at the local nurseries and will buy some seeds to replant some next spring if I can find them. I really liked its short stature, huge flowers that lasted a long, long time with great striations of color and its drought tolerance. Unfortunately, I do not know its cultivar.


On Aug 9, 2003, Ladyfern from Jeffersonville, IN (Zone 6a) wrote:

The small, hairy leaves of this species are not nearly as attractive as r. fulgida, but it begins bloom earlier, has a more lemony color, and has long stems exellent for cutting. Its more slender stature helps it blend well in mixed beds. Mine looks great in with purple coneflower, liatris, and daisies.


On Sep 3, 2001, talinum from Kearney, NE (Zone 5a) wrote:

Susciptible to downy mildew, rust, powdery mildew, aphid and sawfly.


On Nov 6, 2000, jody from MD &, VA (Zone 7b) wrote:

This species of Rudbeckia are biennial or short lived perennials. Some are treated as annuals. Some common names are 'Toto', 'Becky mixed' and 'Irish Eyes'. The flowers are yellow with cones that are brown or purplish. They grow 1' to 3' high with a spread of about 1'. All best cultivated in full sun or part shade. Hardy zones 3-10.