Linaria Species, Yellow Toadflax, Bread and Butter, Brideweed, Bridewort, Butter and Eggs

Linaria vulgaris

Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Linaria (lin-AR-ee-uh) (Info)
Species: vulgaris (vul-GAIR-iss) (Info)



Water Requirements:

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun




Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us


12-18 in. (30-45 cm)

18-24 in. (45-60 cm)

24-36 in. (60-90 cm)


12-15 in. (30-38 cm)


USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 C (-40 F)

USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 C (-35 F)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Bloom Color:

Pale Yellow

White/Near White

Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Mid Summer

Late Summer/Early Fall

Mid Fall

Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

From softwood cuttings

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse

Self-sows freely; deadhead if you do not want volunteer seedlings next season

Seed Collecting:

Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Huntsville, Alabama

Sitka, Alaska

Susanville, California

Elberton, Georgia

Chadwick, Illinois

Chicago, Illinois

Newton, Kansas

Barbourville, Kentucky

La Grange, Kentucky

London, Kentucky

Cumberland, Maryland

Oakland, Maryland

Lake, Michigan

Saint Helen, Michigan

Saint Cloud, Minnesota

Saint Paul, Minnesota

Young America, Minnesota

Dover, New Hampshire

Englishtown, New Jersey

Carmel, New York

Medina, Ohio


Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Ebensburg, Pennsylvania

Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania

Millersburg, Pennsylvania

Cookeville, Tennessee

Murfreesboro, Tennessee

Cedar Hill, Texas

Salt Lake City, Utah

Kalama, Washington

Pewaukee, Wisconsin

Porterfield, Wisconsin

Pulaski, Wisconsin

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On May 23, 2015, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:

According to BONAP, this species is a noxious weed in at least 12 western states and has naturalized in 46 of the lower 48 states.

Here in Massachusetts, it's uncontrollable in the garden, spreading both by runners and by seed.


On Aug 10, 2014, opiecrunch wrote:

Was given a start of this beautiful little plant over 25 years ago by now. Needs to be well watered here in Kansas with our brutal summers.No invasive tendencies here in Kansas. Almost lost my start several times over the years with our droughts and heat.


On Aug 29, 2013, pookha from edmonton,
Canada wrote:

Noxious weed designation in Alberta


On Nov 3, 2007, distantkin from Saint Cloud, MN (Zone 4b) wrote:

MN DNR's website has this plant listed on the invasive list.
"Ecological Threat:
This plant has the ability to adapt to various site conditions, in Minnesota it grows on gravelly to sandy soil along roadsides, railroad yards, waste places, dry fields, pastures and croplands.
It competes well against less aggressive native plants in gravelly and sandy soils; its capability to spread also vegetatively is largely responsible for its invasive behavior.
It presents a problem in prairie reconstruction projects, once it has established itself.
This plant is a serious problem in Alberta and is on the state noxious weed list in New Mexico and Arizona.
This plant was introduced into North America as an ornamental from the steppes of Europe and Asia in th... read more


On Apr 1, 2007, Joan from Belfield, ND (Zone 4a) wrote:

This plant is listed on the North Dakota invasive/troublesome list and this information is being distributed in a guide developed by the ND Weed Control Association and other agencies.

Plant Features
Perennial, up to 2 feet tall
Numerous soft leaves are long, narrow, pale green and are attached directly to the stem
Bright yellow snapdragon-like flowers with a bright orange throat and long yellow spur
Blooms May through September
Spreads by creeping roots (rhizomotous, spreads laterally 10 feet per year), and seeds

Widespread invasive that grows under most conditions
Very aggressive, tolerates shade
Very difficult to eradicate

Interesting Facts
Garden... read more


On Feb 18, 2007, JodyC from Palmyra, IL (Zone 5b) wrote:

Toadflax is Very Dangerous to Livestock,if you have live stock and it can get into your pastures,it can kill your stock...I wanted to grow this but now I'm scared to because we have horses and it spreads to easy and is a weed to ranchers and livestock owners..:-(


On Nov 8, 2004, Kim_M from Hamburg, PA (Zone 6b) wrote:

Very Cheery and delightful plant


On Oct 6, 2004, nevrest from Broadview, SK (Zone 3a) wrote:

It is considered a noxious weed here in Saskatchewan, the local R.M. spray it where ever it is spotted. Has been spread quite extensively by the snow-machines.
Beautiful flowers, such a cheery yellow but we find it so hard to get rid of or even control.


On Aug 19, 2002, Baa wrote:

A perennial from Europe.

Has grey-green, linear or lance shaped, almost hairless leaves. Bears 2 lipped, pale yellow flowers with a dark gold spot on the lower lip, behind the flower is a conspicuous spur.

Flowers June-October

Loves moist but well-drained, soil in full sun but can tolerate a wide range of soils and situations. It can become invasive via it's creeping root system and self-sows quite easily.

The common name Toadflax derives from the time when Flax (Linum usitatissimum) was widely grown as a fibre crop. This Linaria would happily self sow within the Flax and grow virtually unnoticed until it flowered. It has no use at all for fibre making and could devalue the crop.

It was once considered a cure for j... read more


On Mar 17, 2001, gardener_mick from Wentworth, SD (Zone 4a) wrote:

Well-drained, moist soil. Propogate by seed, self sows