Trifolium Species, Red Clover

Trifolium pratense

Family: Fabaceae (fab-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Trifolium (try-FOH-lee-um) (Info)
Species: pratense (pray-TEN-see) (Info)
Synonym:Trifolium borysthenicum
Synonym:Trifolium bracteatum
Synonym:Trifolium lenkoranicum
Synonym:Trifolium pratense var. lenkoranicum
Synonym:Trifolium ukrainicum



Water Requirements:

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun

Sun to Partial Shade



Foliage Color:



18-24 in. (45-60 cm)


18-24 in. (45-60 cm)


USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 C (-40 F)

USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 C (-35 F)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us



Bloom Color:


Bloom Characteristics:

This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Late Spring/Early Summer

Mid Summer

Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

By dividing the rootball

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse

From seed; direct sow after last frost

Seed Collecting:

Bag seedheads to capture ripening seed

Collect seedhead/pod when flowers fade; allow to dry

Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Huntington, Arkansas

Ponca, Arkansas

Van Buren, Arkansas

Wilmington, Delaware

Pensacola, Florida

Elberton, Georgia

Indianapolis, Indiana

Macy, Indiana

Burt, Iowa

Benton, Kentucky

Cadiz, Kentucky

Ewing, Kentucky

Marrero, Louisiana

Cumberland, Maryland

Saint Cloud, Minnesota

Cole Camp, Missouri

New Milford, New Jersey

Buffalo, New York

Crown Point, New York

Glouster, Ohio

Guysville, Ohio

Colver, Pennsylvania

Greencastle, Pennsylvania

Westerly, Rhode Island

Austin, Texas

Port Neches, Texas

Troy, Virginia

Virginia Beach, Virginia

Clarkston, Washington

Clarkston Heights-Vineland, Washington

West Clarkston-Highland, Washington

Kimberly, Wisconsin

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Apr 16, 2019, markdeutsch from Pass Christian, MS wrote:

Include zone 9A for it. There's are several fields of it beautifully blooming in New Orleans. Good iguana and tortoise food. Food source for humans, but see preparations.


On Feb 28, 2012, Gabrielle from (Zone 5a) wrote:

Blooms May - September in my garden. My pet rabbits LOVE it.


On Jul 5, 2009, iluvcatz from Westerly, RI wrote:

I see these everywere growing wild. I call them bunny food


On Mar 1, 2009, inkblot from Buffalo, NY (Zone 6a) wrote:

Very nice plant. Although its extremely common where I live, its easy to get rid of. I like making an extract out of the flowers to treat my moms menopause.


On Nov 18, 2006, Farmerdill from Augusta, GA (Zone 8a) wrote:

Red clover was a valuable early hay crop in my youth. Not only was it great for hay, it improved the soil for subsequent crops. In the days of crop, (rotation, corn, small grain, hay, hay). it was quite valuable. It only last about two years so not good for a permanent hayfield.


On Nov 17, 2006, frostweed from Josephine, Arlington, TX (Zone 8a) wrote:

Red Clover ,Trifolium pratense, is Naturalized in Texas and other States.


On Jan 21, 2005, JodyC from Palmyra, IL (Zone 5b) wrote:

Flowers formally smoked in antiasthma cigarettes
Red clover extracts produced in Australia,sold in USA.One tablet contains 40 mg. of photoestrogens,8 times the amount consumed by Americans.
Fall or late cut hay can cause slobbering or frothing in cattle and horses
Now being studied for AIDS and antidiabetic activity


On Aug 10, 2004, Howard_C from St John's, NL wrote:

In Newfoundland we occasionally come across the white form of this species, it has the tall habit and the three leaves right under the flowers which are some of the features of Red Clover, T. pretense, which distinguish it from true White Clover, T. repens, which is creeping, as its Latin name suggests, and has no leaves on the peduncle. The picture I've submitted was taken on Cape Spear, the most easterly point in North America, in late July 2004. (I'm still looking for the red form of White Clover!) I doubt whether this form really has much garden merit though.


On May 16, 2002, melody from Benton, KY (Zone 7a) wrote:

A common roadside plant,but very attractive and useful.

Wonderful for animal forage,high in nutrients.Attractive to bees and butterflies.

I wouldn't consider this a common garden flower,but it has it's place in a naturalized setting,or wildflower mass. Great for fixing nitrogen in soil.