Pinus Species, Arkansas Pine, Shortleaf Pine, Southern Yellow Pine

Pinus echinata

Family: Pinaceae (py-NAY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Pinus (PY-nus) (Info)
Species: echinata (ek-in-AY-tuh) (Info)





Water Requirements:

Drought-tolerant; suitable for xeriscaping

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun


Grown for foliage


Provides Winter Interest

Foliage Color:

Light Green

Medium Green


over 40 ft. (12 m)


30-40 ft. (9-12 m)

over 40 ft. (12 m)


USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


Handling plant may cause skin irritation or allergic reaction

Bloom Color:

Bright Yellow

Chartreuse (yellow-green)

Bloom Characteristics:

This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Mid Spring

Other details:

Unknown - Tell us

Soil pH requirements:

4.6 to 5.0 (highly acidic)

5.1 to 5.5 (strongly acidic)

5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

Patent Information:

Unknown - Tell us

Propagation Methods:

From semi-hardwood cuttings

From seed; direct sow after last frost

By grafting

By air layering

Seed Collecting:

Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds

Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Lilburn, Georgia

Peoria, Illinois

Benton, Kentucky

Mc Dowell, Kentucky

Piedmont, Missouri

Raleigh, North Carolina

Wilmington, North Carolina

Lansdale, Pennsylvania

Media, Pennsylvania

San Antonio, Texas

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Jan 2, 2014, braun06 from Irving, TX (Zone 8a) wrote:

While doing a community volunteer trip around Peoria, I recognized the bark of this tree in a yard. It is a shocking find since even in St Louis it can appear a bit mangy after some winters. The tree growing here is about 20' tall and has developed a crown low at this height, obviously adjustments for the colder climate. In Peoria it survives and grows. During the growing season Shortleaf pine is attractive however in winter the leaves take on a yellow cast here and medium defoliation can be common. I don't know how someone here got a hold of this pine and planted it, kind of random. It was cool to see the tree again after moving away from the Carolinas in 2000.


On Feb 8, 2008, jqpublic from Cary, NC (Zone 7b) wrote:

Not as common here as the Loblolly pine, but I do love the form of this tree over the Loblolly. Tall stand-alone specimens are quite picturesque and look like giant bonsais! I just love them and their look in the winter landscape :)


On Jul 24, 2005, htop from San Antonio, TX (Zone 8b) wrote:

This is an evergreen native tree that grows to 80-100 feet in height with a trunk that can be 2-3 feet in diameter. When young it has a pyramidal shape, but, develops a small narrow crown with age. The bark is scaly-plated, red-brown and has resin pockets. The branches are spreading to ascending wth 2-year-old branchlets being slender, 5 mm or less and are greenish brown to red-brown. They age to gray and become rough and crack below the leafy portion. The red-brown buds are ovoid to cylindric.

It has 3 to 5" dark blue-green, needle-like leaves in groups of 2 to 3, which are straight to slightly twisted, gray- to yellow-green and with the margins finely serrulated. The male bloom clusters are yellowish-brown to pale pink with the females being light pink. They can be solit... read more


On Jan 28, 2005, melody from Benton, KY (Zone 7a) wrote:

A mostly Southern to Mid-southern tree with 2 and 3 needle clusters, which is very unusual.

Needles are 3" to 5" and twigs are about 1/4" thick. cones are egg shaped and 1 1/2" to 3" long and the prickles are weak, and don't hurt the hands when handled. Old cones are usually present on the treee.

Common in old fields and uplands. The young trees are said to produce root sprouts after a fire.


On Jun 11, 2004, Toxicodendron from Piedmont, MO (Zone 6a) wrote:

Pinus echinata is the predominant native pine here in Southeast Missouri. It is a tall, straight, attractive tree with very nice blocky bark. I have read that it is the only pine which will resprout if the central leader is cut off, and I have seen some "bonsai" looking ones along the highway where that has happened. It will grow in rocky clay and endure summer droughts. Not easily transplanted except when very small, because of the taproot. Most of ours are 70 feet tall or more. They lose the lower branches as they age, so they are not good for screening.