Bishopwood, Javawood, Javanese Bishopwood, Bischofia, Toog Tree

Bischofia javanica

Family: Euphorbiaceae (yoo-for-bee-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Bischofia (biss-CHOFF-ee-uh) (Info)
Species: javanica (juh-VAHN-ih-kuh) (Info)
Synonym:Andrachne trifoliata
Synonym:Bischofia cummingiana
Synonym:Bischofia oblongifolia
Synonym:Bischofia trifoliata




Foliage Color:


Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Water Requirements:

Requires consistently moist soil; do not let dry out between waterings

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


over 40 ft. (12 m)


Unknown - Tell us


USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F)

USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 C (40 F)

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun

Sun to Partial Shade

Light Shade


Seed is poisonous if ingested

All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Bloom Color:


Bloom Time:

Mid Spring


Grown for foliage





Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

Unknown - Tell us

Seed Collecting:

Unknown - Tell us


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:


Boca Raton, Florida

Bradenton, Florida

Hollywood, Florida

Lehigh Acres, Florida

Merritt Island, Florida

Punta Gorda, Florida

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Gardeners' Notes:


On Mar 17, 2016, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:

"Soon [after its introduction] it became obvious that the tree becomes too big too soon; is not only subject to scale and leaf spot, but has aggressive surface roots; fruiting branches successively die back leaving holes in the crown; seedlings volunteer in cultivated and natural areas. Removal and disposal of overgrown trees is troublesome and costly...

"No experienced, responsible nurseryman would grow the tree today. Unfortunately, there are newcomers in the landscape trade who seeks fast-growing trees of any kind and avail themselves of any left-over stocks of this species to achieve "instant" effects in new housing and commercial develop ments. The property owner finds out too late that he has acquired an undesirable tree and a disposal problem."

The abov... read more


On Oct 31, 2007, RaymondK from Lehigh Acres, FL (Zone 10a) wrote:

I had worked with these trees on many occasions and enjoyed the shade and comfort from the canopy.
I had never experienced any ill with this species at all and it is unfortunate some of the trees were damaged by high winds. The ones I did see that made it through the hurricanes were either grouped together or most of the lateral limbs were removed when they were younger. It is truly an awsome tree.


On May 19, 2005, MotherNature4 from Bartow, FL (Zone 9a) wrote:

These are VERY INVASIVE trees in south Florida. Everyone should do their best to eliminate them. Their dense shade, and perhaps toxins, prevent other plants from growing under them, and the seeds come up everywhere.

I would remind everyone that since it is an Euphorbiaceae, there are skin irritants in the bark and foliage, so I don't think one should attempt to climb it. In fact, care should be taken when handling the cut branches.


On May 18, 2005, jnana from South Florida, FL (Zone 10b) wrote:

This is a huge tree with dense canopy. It is a dangerous tree to have near a house during hurricanes. It is listed as a Category I of most invasive plants by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. It should not be planted in Florida.


On Apr 16, 2005, NativePlantFan9 from Boca Raton, FL (Zone 10a) wrote:

This is a large, deciduous or semi (partially) deciduous tree is native to tropical southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. It has been introduced as a shade and ornamental landscape tree to many tropical and subtropical areas, including the Caribbean and central and southern Florida (including the Keys). Here it has become naturalized in many natural habitats and disturbed sites, including edges of sugarcane fields, cypress swamps, edges, and cypress swamp domes and centers, canal edges, pinelands, and edges and interiors of hammocks, including some areas near the coastal areas in Martin, Palm Beach, Broward, Miami-Dade, Monroe (the Keys and possibly mainland Monroe County), Collier, Lee and Charlotte counties. It has an aggressive root system and often shades out native plants and alters... read more


On Nov 17, 2004, davidlaing from Punta Gorda, FL wrote:

Bishopwood is a huge, aggressive, fast-growing tree that gives excellent shade, but it is also quite messy, being semideciduous (winter dry season here) and shedding its abundant inflorescences of tiny yellow flowers (My tree is a male). When blooming, it produces pollen profusely and can be a problem for those with allergies. My tree, which volunteered in my yard in Punta Gorda, Florida, was completely defoliated in Hurricane Charley, losing most of its branches right down to the trunk. Now, three months later, it already has a massive, dense crown almost half the diameter of the original one. Bishopwood is prone to scale, which I have found impossible to control by any means other than Bayer systemic insecticide poured on the roots.