Buckwheat Tree, Ironwood, Black Titi

Cliftonia monophylla

Family: Cyrillaceae
Genus: Cliftonia (klif-TON-ee-a) (Info)
Species: monophylla (mon-oh-FIL-uh) (Info)
Synonym:Ptelea monophylla
Synonym:Cliftonia ligustrina



Water Requirements:

Unknown - Tell us

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun



Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us


10-12 ft. (3-3.6 m)

12-15 ft. (3.6-4.7 m)


4-6 ft. (1.2-1.8 m)

6-8 ft. (1.8-2.4 m)


USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F)

USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 C (40 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Color:

Pale Pink

White/Near White

Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Late Winter/Early Spring

Mid Spring

Other details:

Unknown - Tell us

Soil pH requirements:

4.5 or below (very acidic)

4.6 to 5.0 (highly acidic)

5.1 to 5.5 (strongly acidic)

Patent Information:

Unknown - Tell us

Propagation Methods:

Unknown - Tell us

Seed Collecting:

Unknown - Tell us


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:

Atmore, Alabama

Gulf Breeze, Florida

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Slaughter, Louisiana

Centreville, Maryland

Ladys Island, South Carolina

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Gardeners' Notes:


On Mar 7, 2016, longjonsilverz from Centreville, MD wrote:

Interesting shrub or small tree. Surprising hardy here in Eastern Maryland (zone 7) remaining mostly evergreen. This is a good but rarely used southeastern US native that has been successful for me with the exception of its tendency to be eaten by rabbits. As long as the rabbits stay away it thrives here and is a good choice for something a little different. The flowers and seed pods are somewhat interesting and add to the appeal. Hard to find but worth a try.


On Feb 24, 2005, Missyinbama from Wetumpka, AL (Zone 8a) wrote:

The tags on my plants list these as "titi" - I have two variations of this plant: Black Titi and Pink Titi. I planted the black as a hedge in the back of the house (the tag said it grows as an evergreen tree/shrub to 30' and has fragrant pink flowers. They flowered this week (2/21/05) despite two weeks of drought after they were planted.


On Feb 22, 2005, xyris from Sebring, FL (Zone 9b) wrote:

Cliftonia monophylla is an evergreen tree (shrubby in stressful habitats) mostly found on the outer Gulf Coastal Plain from Georgia, south to northern Florida, and west to extreme southeast Louisiana. It is very common in the Florida Panhandle and southern Alabama. It is an obligate wetland plant, and reaches its greatest stature in swamps on deep mucky soil. Black Titi is a favored honey plant in the Florida Panhandle, and I have often seen beekeepers move their hives into the natural stands in March.