Toadshade, Wake Robin, Sweet Betsy

Trillium cuneatum

Family: Trilliaceae
Genus: Trillium (TRIL-ee-um) (Info)
Species: cuneatum (kew-nee-AH-tum) (Info)



Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Water Requirements:

Requires consistently moist soil; do not let dry out between waterings

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


under 6 in. (15 cm)


6-9 in. (15-22 cm)


USDA Zone 3a: to -39.9 C (-40 F)

USDA Zone 3b: to -37.2 C (-35 F)

USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

Sun Exposure:

Light Shade


Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Color:



Bloom Time:

Late Spring/Early Summer


Grown for foliage



Other details:

This plant may be considered a protected species; check before digging or gathering seeds

Soil pH requirements:

5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

By dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs (including offsets)

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

Seed Collecting:

Bag seedheads to capture ripening seed

Allow seedheads to dry on plants; remove and collect seeds


This plant has been said to grow in the following regions:


Anniston, Alabama

Atlanta, Georgia

Braselton, Georgia

Iowa City, Iowa

Royal Oak, Michigan

Glouster, Ohio

Portland, Oregon

Salem, Oregon

Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania

Crossville, Tennessee

Murfreesboro, Tennessee

Nashville, Tennessee

Oliver Springs, Tennessee

Kingston, Washington

Seattle, Washington

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Gardeners' Notes:


On Apr 18, 2008, crimsontsavo from Crossville, TN (Zone 7a) wrote:

The sweet citrus scent from my trilliums is enough to make a person die with pleasure.
Mine grow in dappled woods as well as full sun.
A glorious plant.


On May 10, 2005, TNPassiflora from Oliver Springs, TN (Zone 6b) wrote:

Since I have so many Toadshade on my property (probably 100-200 each spring!), I have transplanted several to my wildflower garden. I have found that they do very well; the ones I planted last spring have come back & new ones also sprouted (they spread). But you do have to be sure and get the entire bulbous part of the root when transplanting. The plants need shade & moist, well-drained soil, rich in organic matter. They will tolerate some sun, but is best if sun is filtered or dappled through the canopy. All of last year's Toadshade were burgundy-flowered, but this year we have many with yello-ochre colored flowers. Ours grow 1-2 feet tall, rather than the "under 6 inches" listed in the profile. The wooded portion of our property has been undisturbed for many years & is a wildflower h... read more


On Dec 6, 2004, smiln32 from Oklahoma City, OK (Zone 7a) wrote:

This plant is native to the southeastern portion of the United States. It flowers reliably and produces bulblets which can be separated to start new plants. It is best to divide in the fall. The foliage is outstanding and is almost as much fun as the flower itself.


On May 17, 2002, naturepatch from Morris, IL (Zone 5b) wrote:

Not the easiest of plants to grow, like most wildflowers. It is a spring ephemeral, so it will disappear after blooming. Flowers can be inconspicuous, but if they are happy they can put on a show. I just happen to like wildflowers, and their habitat is quickly disappearing. Worth the effort if you like the unusual.


On Aug 9, 2001, Terry from Murfreesboro, TN (Zone 7a) wrote:

These woodland plants are often considered endangered in their native habitat; purchase from reputable nurseries.

The plants flower in early spring, but unlike other species, the flower is inconspicuous, and the mottled foliage is generally noticed first.